Software Testing Jobs



This article is for freshers and experienced Software Testers who want to be effective in Software Testing Job search or who want be more successful in clearing most of the Software Testing Interviews they attend. I will touch upon some of the aspects like, what to highlight in CV / Resume, channels available to search for Software Testing jobs, interview preparation, HR interview questions, and some tips on clearing interviews successfully.

For the benefit of freshers, I would start this article by explaining importance of Software testing, how much clients value Software Testing services and later explain how to increase chances of getting a Software Testing Job as a fresher or as an experienced Software Test Engineer. The intent of this article is not to bias freshers or anybody to choose Software Testing Career but to make them understand the importance and value of Software Testing in IT Industry, so that freshers can decide for themselves.

Incase you are fresher or less experienced software testers, I would strongly recommend to read article on What is Software Testing?, which explains what software testing is all about, why software testing is required, Cost of Quality, risks associated with softwares with defects, before you continue reading this article

Software testing jobs in the past, about more than 5 years ago, was perceived as a profession that was easy to get into, boring, repetitive, lot of documentation work, more of data entry, apt for people with less IQ, job suitable for non IT graduates, and Software Testing is a stepping stone to move to development roles, Software Testing means only black box testing etc. I would say, these are all myths of the past and it’s time to provide awareness to people who still think on those lines. The reason I say so, even developers have to create documents, like high level and low level design documents, document unit test cases, log unit test defects, so even developers spend roughly about 30% to 60% of their time in documentation and testing like unit testing and component testing depending on the technology, SDLC, Process followed and complexity of the project.

Companies always like to hire freshers or experienced people who really like, understand importance of Software Testing and who want to stick to software testing career and not choose Software Testing job as a stop gap arrangement. It is imperative that during introduction or while answering to questions like “why you want to take up Software Testing Job as a fresher”, your answer should express your interest in Software Testing and highlight some of your qualities and strengths that will help you to be a good Software Tester.

Software Testing Jobs are in great demand at present, there are lot of Software Testing Job openings, at the same time there are more people willing to pursue Software Testing career than the number of Software Testing Jobs available. In the recent few years, I have seen developers choosing Software Tester roles, as they want to be experts in a particular Business domain and work in niche software testing types like Security testing or Performance testing or Usability testing etc.,

In many of the Pre-sales or client delivery visits that I have supported, clients always asked more related to Software Testing and Quality Assurance and they were eager to know more on Software Testing Capability and Software Test Process maturity of the organization, Software Testing Tools expertise, Metrics and Software Test Certifications before they decide to outsource or increase the scope of outsourced work. Below are some of the questions that are usually asked during client visits.

  • What is the organizational and Project capability and Process maturity ?
  • What is the Software Testing processes followed ?
  • What is the Software Testing Life Cycle being followed ?
  • How many software testers were certified ?
  • What are the Software Test Tools organization has used or has expertise ?
  • What is the capability of organization with regard to Software Test Automation ?
  • Requirements traceability to ensure all the requirements are tested
  • What are the Test metrics captured ?
  • Organization capability to carry out different types of testing and test application built on different technologies like Web, Mobile apps etc.

Now, I would like to explain some of the topics related to Software Testing Jobs for freshers, like Campus and Off-campus recruitment options, points to highlight in CV / resume.

Software Testing Jobs

Software Testing Jobs

Software Testing Jobs for Freshers

Finding a Software Testing job as a fresher is really hard compared to an experienced Software Test engineer. I would strongly advise freshers to first thoroughly understand what is software testing? why Software Testing is required ?, Qualities and skills required to be a good and successful software Tester, get to know about software testing career paths, get a overview of different types of software testing and software testing tools available in the industry.

One should not blindly prefer Development or any other IT Job, just because their friends or college mates chose. I have seen people opting development blindly by following footsteps their friends or college mates and later realizing that Software Testing or other profession would have provided better career prospect for them, late realization does not help. So, you should choose Software Testing if it’s inline with your aspirations, strengths and if you want to hone skills required to take up Software Testing as your career.

Why there are few Off-Campus opportunities for freshers?

Most of the software companies go for campus recruitment rather than Off-Campus recruitment, as it is more beneficial for the company in terms of Training, meeting their recruitment targets and faster way of hiring large number of talented people.

Campus recruitment: Companies call for campus recruitment when it is targeting for hiring freshers with good grades or percentages in their academics. Candidates are expected to be good in oral and written communication (in English), good problem solving and analytical skills. Large or mid sized companies prefer Campus recruitment, as the fresher intake is high, they handle larger projects and maintain good bench strength. Also, it would be easier for them to conduct trainings for a sizeable batch. Hence, large or mid sized companies prefer campus recruitment.

Off-Campus recruitment: Companies call for off-campus recruitment when the number of intake is less. Mostly, small companies opt for off-campus recruitment than campus recruitment as their hiring numbers are usually low. Even large or mid sized companies may call-in for Off-campus recruitment when the intake numbers are less or outside campus recruitment timelines. Companies may also prefer off-campus when they do not have time or budget to train freshers. Hence, freshers who have undergone training from reputed professional institutes and finishing schools will have higher changes of getting selected in off-campus rather than a fresher who has not undergone any training.

Point to remember as fresher:

a) Qualities of good Software Test Engineer: You should choose Software Testing, if you feel you have the below qualities or you can enhance on the below qualities.

  1. Attitude to find faults to make things better.
  2. Attention to detail.
  3. Interested to understand business domain(s) and be a SME (subject matter expert) of one or more business domains.
  4. Good analytical skills.
  5. Programming Knowledge, required for Test Automation.
  6. SQL Knowledge, required for functional testing or Test Automation.
  7. Good oral and written communication.
  8. Good people skills.

b) Choose right Software Testing Job: If you have options to choose among multiple Software testing jobs, prefer the one that provides at least basic training covering Fundamentals of Software Testing or Software Testing Process or Software Testing Tools (QTP or Loadrunner or RFT) or provides an opportunity to learn popular Business domains like Banking or Telecom or Insurance or latest or niche Technology like Mobile application Testing or Security Testing or Usability Testing.

c) Software Testing Trainings: If you are searching for off-campus Software Testing Jobs, then it is very much required for you to get trained from a reputed institute on Software Testing and Software Testing tools etc., reputed institutes like NIIT or APTECH etc. that provide best Software Testing trainings.

d) Highlight achievements and strengths: Highlight your achievements and strengths which are required to be a good Software Tester (refer to point (a) for list of qualities) in your resume / CV. Also be prepared for follow-up questions that might be asked to provide citations that would prove your achievements and strengths. If you had completed development or testing project as part of your academics, highlight on the different types of testing performed, Software testing tools used etc.,

e) Be flexible on pay: I would personally advise freshers to be little flexible on the Salary part over learning aspect, while choosing between multiple Software testing job offers.

 

How to effectively search for Software Testing Jobs as a Fresher ?

a) Job portals: Submit your CV in all the job portals irrespective of whether they are popular or not. Also, submit your CV in job portals that are exclusively for freshers like FirstNaukri and FreshersWorld.

b) Job placement by Training Centers: As mentioned people who undergo software testing trainings are preferred in Off-campus recruitment, good training centers also provide placement services.

c) Apply for internships: Actively seek for internship roles in a company, internship provides window to fresher to learn and demonstrate his/her capabilities. Usually, internship pay is not lucrative (with some companies as exception) compared to on payroll jobs but provides industry relevant experience for a fresher. Internship will help candidates to get into payrolls of the same company or gain experience that would help to get jobs in other companies on regular payrolls. In simple words, internship is a stepping stone to on-payroll jobs!!!

d) Learn Software Testing Tools: Download some of the Trial Software Testing tools like Loarunner, QTP or RFT and highlight your knowledge of these tools in your CV / Resume.

e) Software Testing Concepts: Understand software testing basic concepts and should be able to define them in own words, terms like Blackbox testing, whitebox testing, Testing Automation, test scenario, test case, defects, defect report, test bed, Unit testing, integration testing etc.,
f) Database concepts: Understand database concepts and should be able to define them and write SQL queries when asked, terms like Relational database, Object relational database, View, index, Joins, DDL, DML, synonym, PL/SQL etc.,

Software Testing Jobs for Experienced

Unlike freshers, experienced software testers need not have to be worry about your grades and percentages of their academic years with an exception of very few companies that still consider academic grades while hiring experienced people, I do not want to mention names of such companies here though ?. However there is lot of preparation that an experienced candidate needs to do before applying for Software Testing Jobs or attending Software Testing interviews.

How to be more successful in getting Software Testing Jobs ?

a) Prepare for technical interview: In most of the software testing interviews for experienced, interviewers expect candidate to be through in software testing concepts, defect reporting, database concepts and SQL queries.

  1. Experience or good understanding of one or more popular domains like (Banking, Telecom, Insurance, Retail or Mobile applications).
  2. Experience or training or self learning in niche areas of Software testing like Usability Testing , Security Testing , Performance testing, mobile application testing, adds weight to CV / resume.
  3. Understanding of how to writing better test cases, test scenarios and good bug report. During interview candidate may be asked to write test scenarios for pen , test cases for login page , test cases for ATM etc. So, it’s better to be prepared for such common questions.
  4. Test case techniques (like Boundary Value Analysis , Equivalence Partitioning and Error Guessing ) and sound understanding of software testing methodologies .
  5. Good understanding of Software Test Plan and Software Test strategy .
  6. Understanding of Entry and Exit Criteria for Software Testing Phase.
  7. Importance and experience in creating and maintaining Traceability Matrix .
  8. Good understanding of Test metrics and formula’s related to Defect Removal Efficiency , Defect Density , CPI (Cost Performance Index) and SPI (Schedule Performance Index).
  9. Experience or knowledge of one popular Functional test automation tools like QTP or RFT or Robot.
  10. Experience and good knowledge in at least one test management software like HP Quality Center or IBM Rational Quality Manager.
  11. Experience or knowledge of one popular performance testing tool like HP Loadrunner or IBM performance tester.
  12. Should be able to write SQL queries that involves Joins and should be able to write queries related to inner join, outer join, self join, left join.
  13. Should be able to explain syntax or with examples for some of the popular Unix or Linux commands like GREP command , FIND command, CAT command , PS Command and CHMOD command .

b) Work on presentation: Being knowledgeable does not necessarily that mean one can present effectively. I have seen people who are very knowledgeable but unable to answer questions straight to the point, they either beat around the bush or they often seem to be at loss of words and unable to express what they want to tell. So, it is very important to prepare and rehearse for answering Interview questions. Best thing to do would be to prepare and answer questions on Software Testing forum which would serve as rehearsal. More rehearsal would increase your confidence level, confidence and correct answers are required to clear interview successfully.

c) Be thorough with your Resume/CV: At least 30% to 40% of the interview questions would be asked from candidate’s CV/resume. So, read your CV at least 2 to 3 times, each and every line of your CV and jot down probable questions that can be asked based out of your resume and rehearse for the questions. Candidates are outright rejected if they cannot answer even 1 or 2 questions that were based on their resume/CV.
d) Highlight Trainings, Certifications and Achievements in your CV/Resume:

  1. CV/Resumes are screened and filtered even before candidates are called for interviews. So it’s imperative that you highlight Certifications you have completed in your CV/Resume which is visible, probably on header or during initial part of the document. I would suggest highlight professional or industry acknowledged certification(s) like CSTE, CSQA, ISTQB, CSTP, CSQE, ISEB etc., that you hold and any other certifications, even though it is not industry acknowledged.
  2. Every organization wants to hire trained or experienced resources. However, some of the trainings can be quite expensive, training on Software Testing tools, Usability, Security Testing etc., Highlight the trainings that you have undergone in current organization or externally.
  3. Every organization wants to hire best talent in town, highlighting your achievements or the value you have created for current and previous organization on top section of your CV will help in getting your CV short listed for skill interview.

e) Prepare for Technical Interview: Usually first round of interview would be Technical round, prepare for every possible Technical Interview question on Software Testing, types of Software Testing, Test Automation, Testing Tools, Defect, Metrics and Business domain on which you have worked. Go through exhaustive list of Software Testing Interview Questions available on this site.

f) Prepare for Interview with management: Usually second round of interview would be with leadership team like senior manager or director or CEO or CIO etc., depending on the position candidate is being considered for. Interview with leadership very very crucial as the candidate’s designation gets decided and flagged to HR. Leadership team always looks at 4 areas (in following order), Value created for past organization(s), candidate’s Potential to operate one level higher, Achievements and experience.

g) Prepare for HR interview: HR interviews are perceived be pretty simple and quick, however candidates may be asked few tricky questions as well like “what are your 3 weaknesses?” or “what are the 3 things that you don’t like about your current company?” etc.,. HRs usually assess candidates on stability, people skills, genuineness, retention factor and Salary expectations of the candidate. Go through HR Interview questions, prepare and rehearse by answering the questions to best of your knowledge.

 

How to effectively search for Software Testing Jobs with experience ?

a) Job Portals: Submit your CV in all job portals, keep an eye on the new jobs being posted on the job portals, and apply for job openings. Most of the companies do post job openings on job portals. Keep updating/saving your CV in job portal every 15 days or at least once a month, as recently uploaded or updated CVs are usually listed on top, infrequent updates will lead to listing of your resume at the bottom of the list, which means lesser visibility to recruiters and HRs looking for candidates on job portal.

b) Make most of Social Network: Employee referral is one of the most reliable channels for any company. Companies believe that their employees can influence talented, like minded and experienced friends, ex-colleagues and acquaintances to join the company. On an average 25% to 30% of the company’s recruitment needs are fulfilled through employee referral. Plus referrer will earn a referral bonus!!! So it’s time to socialize, expand your professional & friendship network, get to know more people, share knowledge so that they would in turn help you at some point of time in future, when you need help in finding a Software testing Job or help with a particular tool or domain etc. Remember “A friend is need is a friend in deed”. Do you like this post? Then share it with your friends, peers or ex-colleagues or on social networking sites, remember what I said “Expand your network and make it stronger”, also “sharing is caring and sharing is being social“. share this article with people whom it would help and socialize.

c) Contracting or body shopping agencies: There are quite a few contracting or body shopping agencies that hire experienced candidates on their payrolls and place them on contract with other IT companies. Over a period of time, depending on the contracting agency policies and contracts, they allow contractor to employee conversion. Contracting companies is a faster employment option; when somebody is desperately look out for a job. Most of the larger companies have at least 15% to 30% of their workforce on contract in Indian companies, as it helps them for a quick ramp up or ramp down based on the project or companies growth needs. Percentage of contract depends on skill and geography. Contractor to employee percentage is in countries like USA, UK and countries in Europe compared to Indian companies, like if contractor to employee % in US or UK is (60% to 80%), in Indian companies it would be .1 to .3 (i.e. 10% to 30%)

 

We are very grateful to our guest author Hari Iyer for contributing a detailed and useful article that would help fresher and experienced people in searching for Software testing jobs. Hari, is working as software Test Manager in one of the reputed Software companies in Bangalore (India). We are positive that this article will help freshers and experienced people alike in Software Testing Job search and preparing for Software testing interviews. Wishing Good Luck to all of our blog readers on their software testing job search and for interview preparation!!!


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    Software Testing Interview Questions



    Below is an exhaustive list of questions asked during Manual Software Testing Interviews. These interview questions are submitted in our Software Testing Forum as well, click on “Answer” link against any of the questions listed below to answer the question to best of your knowledge or read answers submitted by others and provide your inputs.

    1. What is Software engineering ? Answer
    2. What is Test Case ? Answer
    3. What is the difference between error, bug and Defect ? Answer
    4. Why is V model called as V Model ? Answer
    5. What is DFD (Data flow diagram) ? Answer
    6. What is Flow chart ? Answer
    7. What is regression testing ? Answer
    8. What is retesting ? Answer
    9. What is the difference between regression testing and retesting ? Answer
    10. What are the different types of software testing ? Explain them briefly. Answer
    11. What is SRS (Software requirement specification) document ? How is it useful for software testing team ? Answer
    12. What is alpha testing ? Answer
    13. What is beta testing ? Answer
    14. How is Software Testing different from Software Quality Assurance ? Answer
    15. What is Build, Version and Release ? Answer
    16. Comeup with Test cases for Pen Answer
    17. Comeup with Test cases for Gmail Answer
    18. Comeup with Test cases for testing Google.com Answer
    19. Comeup with Test Cases for testing Login page Answer
    20. Comeup with Test Cases for Stapler Answer
    21. What is unit testing ? Who does unit testing ? Answer
    22. What is Equivalence Partitioning ? Explain with Example Answer
    23. What is Decission table ? Explain with example Answer
    24. What is BVA (Boundary Value Analysis) ? Explain with example Answer
    25. What is Smoke Testing ? Answer
    26. What is Sanity Testing ? Answer
    27. What is the difference between Verification and Validation ? Answer
    28. What is volume Testing ? Answer
    29. What is localisation testing ? Answer
    30. What is blackbox testing ? Answer
    31. What is grey box testing ? Answer
    32. How do you decide on Defect Severity ? Explain with examples Answer
    33. What is latent bug ? Answer
    34. What is the difference between bug reporting and bug tracking ? Answer
    35. What are the contents of a good bug report ? Answer
    36. what would you do if one or more requirements in requirements document are not clear for you ? Answer
    37. What are the advantages of blackbox testing ? Answer
    38. What are the disadvantages of blackbox testing ? Answer
    39. What is usability testing ? Answer
    40. What is the difference between SDLC and STLC ? Answer
    41. What is the difference between Performance Testing and Stress testing ? Answer
    42. What is the difference between Stress and Load testing ? Answer
    43. What is Software Test Plan ? What are components of Test Plan ? Answer
    44. what is pairwise testing ? When to use pair testing ? Answer
    45. What is the difference between Test Bed and Test Harness ? Answer
    46. What are non-functional requirements ? Answer
    47. What is cyclomatic complexity ? Answer
    48. What is Fish pond analysis ? Answer
    49. What is installation/uninstallation testing ? Answer
    50. What is fish bone chart ? Answer
    51. What is six sigma ? Answer
    52. What is the difference between Top down and Bottom up integration testng ? Answer
    53. What is defect leakage ? Answer
    54. What are the challenges you faced as Software Test Engineer ? Answer
    55. How do you manage test data required for software testing ? Answer
    56. What is Software Testing Life Cycle ? Answer
    57. What are your responsibilities as Software Test Architect ? Answer
    58. What is tracebility matrix ? Explain tracebility matrix that you have used Answer
    59. What is the difference between Test Scenarios and Use cases in Software Testing ? Answer
    60. Explain V model ? Answer
    61. Is V model better than Waterfall model ? How ? Answer
    62. What is integration testing ? Answer
    63. What is compatibility testing ? Answer
    64. Give example of high severity and low priority defect ? Answer
    65. Give example of high priority and low severity defect ? Answer
    66. What is bug life cycle ? Answer
    67. What is a deferred defect ? Who decides to deferr a defect ? Answer
    68. What does a defect report contain ? Answer
    69. When do we start and stop Software Testing ? Answer
    70. What is ACID property ? Answer
    71. What is Exploratory Testing ? What are the benefits of Exploratory Testing ? Answer
    72. What is monkey testing ? Answer
    73. What is masked defect ? Answer
    74. What is UAT (User Acceptance testing) ? Answer
    75. What is peer review ? Why is it important ? Explain peer review with respect to Software Testing Answer
    76. Do you have any certifications related to Software Testing ? Why haven’t you tried for one ? Answer
    77. What is the difference between System testing and End-to-End testing ? Answer
    78. What is the difference between SRS and BRS ? Answer
    79. What is 3-tier architecture ? Answer
    80. What is acceptance testing ? Answer
    81. What is Ad-hoc testing ? What are the advantages and disadvantages of Ad-hoc testing ? Answer
    82. What is security testing ? Answer
    83. What is the difference between client server application and web based application ? Answer
    84. What is the difference between CMM and TMM ? Answer
    85. What is memory leakage ? How to test memory leakage manually ? Answer
    86. What are the typical bugs that one would find while testing web based application ? Answer
    87. What are cookies ? What would you test in cookies ? Answer
    88. What are Test Scenarios ? Answer
    89. What is defect life cycle ? Answer
    90. What is SDLC ? Answer
    91. What is STLC ? Answer
    92. What is inspection ? Answer
    93. What are the document required by Software Testing team ? Answer
    94. What are the deliverables or artifacts created by Software testing team ? Answer
    95. What is bi-directional Traceability matrix ? Answer
    96. What are the bug tracking tools you have used ? Answer
    97. What is Test Bed ? Answer
    98. What is risk based testing ? Answer
    99. What is SCM (Software Configuration Management) ? Answer
    100. what are the qualities of a good Software Test Engineer ? Answer
    101. What is stage containment in testing ? Answer
    102. What is CMMI ? Answer
    103. What is the difference between CMM and CMMI ? Answer
    104. What are KPAs ? Answer
    105. What is accessibility testing ? Answer
    106. What are the minimum requirements for starting testing ? Answer
    107. What is Agile development methodology ? Answer
    108. If you come across defects that are not reproducible defects ? What do you do ? Would you report them ? Answer
    109. What are your responsibilities as Software Test Lead ? Answer
    110. How do you review Test Cases ? Answer
    111. How do you manage software test environment ? What are the challenges you have faced related to test environment ? How did you resolve it ? Answer
    112. What is the difference between 2-tier architecture and 3-tier architecture ? Answer
    113. How do you derive Software Test estimates ? Answer
    114. When would you update a Software Test Plan ? Answer
    115. What is Test Strategy ? Briefly explain sections of a Test Strategy document ? Answer
    116. What is Test Approach ? Briefly explain sections of a Test Approach document ? Answer
    117. How do you decide on the test cases to be included in regression testing suite ? Answer
    118. What is defect density ? Explain the formula Answer
    119. How do you define Entry and exit criteria for Software Testing ? Answer
    120. What is release notes ? What do you check in release notes ? Answer
    121. What is the ideal duration you would suggest between builds for Testing ? Answer
    122. Why most of the companies prefer Manual testing over automated testing ? Answer
    123. What if a developer denies to fix a bug ? What would you do ? Answer
    124. What is the difference between Risk and Issue ? Answer
    125. What is Risk ? What is Risk Analysis ? What are the common risks associated with Software Testing ? Answer
    126. How are Risks categorized ? Answer
    127. What is IV&V ? Answer
    128. What is extreme testing ? Answer
    129. What are the differences between Reviews and Walkthroughs ? Answer
    130. What is the difference between Functional and System Testing ? Answer
    131. What is Test Coverage ? How do you meausre Test Coverage ? Answer
    132. What is the difference between Smoke and Sanity Testing ? Answer
    133. When do you conclude testing is complete ? Answer
    134. What are the challenges associated with localisation testing ? Answer
    135. What is fuzz testing ? Answer
    136. Would you allow released to be deployed without testing ? If yes, in what scenario ? Answer
    137. What are the challenges faced by Software Testers at client location ? Answer
    138. What is the difference between Testing Techniques and Testing Methodology ? Answer
    139. What is metrics ? What is the use of metrics for Software Testing phase ? Answer
    140. What are the Software Test Metrics related to Software Testing that you would generate ? Answer
    141. What is Test Closure report ? When is it created ? What does it contain ? Answer
    142. What would you suggest to do when environment is setup and handedover to Testing team for testing ? Answer
    143. What is bug triage ? What is your role in bug triage meeting ? Answer
    144. What is Integration test plan ? Explain sections of Integration Test Plan ? Answer
    145. What is FURPS ? Explain it with example of Login screen Answer
    146. What is test policy document ? Answer
    147. What does a Software Test report contain ? Answer
    148. What is Cost of Quality ? Answer
    149. What are your responsibilities as Software Test Manager ? Answer
    150. Do you have any certifications related to Project management ? Why haven’t you tried for one ? Answer
    151. What are your responsibilities as Software Test Architect ? Answer

    Thank you very much Lakshmi for compiling list of frequently asked Software Testing Interview questions and taking your time in posting them in software testing forum. Readers, if you have more questions which are not already covered in the above list, you can email them to contactus[at]softwaretestingsoftware.com.


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      Team Building



      Team of Software Testers or Software Testing Team ?

      testing-team

       

      Every Test Lead and Test Manager wishes to lead a Successful Software Testing Team rather than a Team of Software Testers. Most of the Test Leads and Test Managers desire to be given a high performance software test team rather than building a high performance and successful Software Testing team.

      If you are a Test Lead or Test Manager or aspiring to become a successful Test Lead or Test Manager in future then I would share the methods I employed in building a high performing and successful Testing team.

      So, let’s see the factors that contribute towards building a high performing software testing team.

       

      software-testing-team

       

      Identify and staff best Software Testers: Ground rule is, always hire testers or new comers who are interested in testing and want to peruse Software Testing as a career, never hire people who treat Software Testing Job as a stop gap arrangement to move to software development or do not have respect for software testing. When you get chance to hire or staff somebody on to your testing team, always look for, find and take best Software testers. In most of the cases, test leads or test managers hire software testers who are readily available rather than waiting to get good software tester. Test Leads and Test Managers should always expand their network to identify best Software Testers available with-in and outside their company; this would help them in hiring the best talent quickly when required. Hiring best software testers not only helps to make the testing project successful, it would also reduce most of the project delivery pressure off from Test Lead and Test Manager.

      Retain best Software Testers: Retaining best talent is even tougher than identifying them. As a Test Lead or Test Manager or as senior management, one should be liberal in appreciations, rewards and making the best resources feel their work and talent is recognized and rewarded. Awards and recognition may not always necessarily be associated with monetary benefits. Individuals feel recognized even in cases when supervisor or senior management sends out an appreciation email copying development, testing and other stake holders. Awards and recognition should not be targeted only for the particular areas of work like defects, instead it should be across different aspects of software testing and test management like “Team player of month”, “Effective Reviewer of month”, “KT session of Month” etc.

      Set Objectives and provide feedback: Setting Objectives for every member of the team is the key to success of the team and organization as a whole. These objectives have to be reviewed time to time at least once in 3 months or when a team member gets promoted or entrusted with more responsibilities. Setting objectives ensure resources are clear about the expectation of the supervisor and the organization. Objectives set should be measureable in nature than being generic e.g. ensure 100% of Sev1, Sev2 defects, 95% of Sev3 defects and 85% of Sev4 defects are identified and reported during QA phase. Similarly other objectives can be related to Knowledge sharing, obtaining certification or evolving as subject matter expert etc.

      Providing regular feedback is equally important as compared to objective setting. Its very important to provide feedback to resources and ensure they take it in right sense rather than start feeling insecure and not being wanted in the team.

      Most of the bigger organizations already have a well defined appraisal framework for Objective setting and feedback documentation. However, following the framework in the right sense is most important. Incase a well defined appraisal framework does not exist in the organization you are working currently, then its time to setup a appraisal framework for your team.

      Motivate team members: Building good professional relationship with your subordinates is the one of the biggest motivational factor for your subordinates. This can be a challenge when your team is large e.g. team size is more than 20 team members, however it is necessary to spend at least 15 to 20 minutes with each resource to build good professional relationship. Best way to do this is, take each member for coffee or breakfast each day, by doing so, you don’t have to dedicate separate time to mingle with your team and build good professional relationship. During Objective setting, as a supervisor one needs to find out what motivates each and every individual in your team. Every team members is unique and their motivational factors can be different. One team member may be motivated when he/she is given more responsibility, for somebody it could just the monetary benefits etc.

      Enhance knowledge of Team: Encourage your testing team to increase Domain knowledge and learn automated testing tools. For tracking purpose, you could use the appraisal framework, where you define one or more objectives related to learning and knowledge management. Constant learning is one of the motivational factors for high performers at the same time it also helps to delivery more and adds value for the project. As a Test Lead or Test Manager, its your job to identify learning needs of the software testers on your team and to bridge any existing knowledge gap.

      This article is contributed by our guest author Vishwajit Singh, this is his first article on our blog. He has 9+ years of experience in Software Testing and 4 Years in Test Management. We whole heartedly thank Vishwajit for his sharing is secret recipe of build a successful software testing team.


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        What is UAT (user acceptance testing)



        Read this article on User Acceptance Testing (UAT) if you want to understand importance of UAT, clients or end user expectations from UAT, how UAT is planned and to understand UAT best practices.

        What is Acceptance Testing?

        Acceptance testing is applicable for various engineering disciplines. Acceptance Testing is more rigorous and consistently followed in IT industry as every software or business solution to be delivered is unique. However, in this article, in this article, we will be focusing on Acceptance Testing in IT industry. Acceptance testing is the last stage of software testing. Acceptance Testing is usually performed by clients or end users who would be using the software once software is deployed in production environment. Acceptance testing is performed in a “Pre-Production” environment that closely mimics production environment i.e. in terms of hardware, configuration, external services etc.

         

        What are the different forms of Acceptance Tests?

        Below are the different forms of Acceptance Tests, based on the nature and type of user base, complexity of the software, one or more types of testing can be applicable.
        - UAT (User Acceptance Testing) or End User Testing
        - Alpha Testing
        - Beta Testing
        - Operational Readiness Testing (ORT)

        uat-acceptance-testing

         

         

        Why UAT is needed ?

        UAT (User Acceptance Testing) is conducted for below reasons.
        a) Evaluate Business benefits: – Before software is rolled out to production environment, clients or End users have to validate the software to check if the business requirements are implemented as required and software can deliver intended business benefits. Clients or end users usually run key end-to-end business scenarios. However, it does not mean that they will not report minor or cosmetic defects they come across while performing UAT. Extent to which UAT is carried out depends on number of critical business requirements being implemented, complexity of the requirements, number client or end users available to perform UAT and duration of UAT phase as well.
        b) Ensure requirements are implemented correctly:- Functional requirements tend to change and evolve across different phases of SDLC or over several iterations like Agile development approach. UAT becomes very necessary as clients or end users validate software to ensure most latest requirements are implemented before software is rolled out to production environment.
        c) Official Signoff:-UAT phase helps to obtain official signoff and go-ahead from Clients or end users to deploy the software into production environment. UAT signoff does not mean that clients or end users take responsibility of any defect leakage. Remember, objective of UAT team is to find out whether software meets business needs or not and changes implemented are acceptable for end users. Software Testing and development teams are primarily responsible for any defect leakage.

        uat-user-acceptance-testing

         

        Remember, success of software depends on business benefits it delivers and acceptance of the software by its users. Incase software does not satisfy one of these criteria then it’s bound to be a failure.

        UAT Test process

        uat-process

         

        UAT like any other phase of SDLC requires great deal of planning and execution. Point to be noted is that significant amount of effort is required from clients or end users as well. UAT test process can be outlined as below.
        - Plan UAT : Scope, resources, timeline
        - Identify UAT Test Scenarios
        - Document UAT Test Scenarios
        - Identify UAT Test Data requirements
        - Execute UAT Tests
        - Verify UAT defect fixes
        - Report UAT results
        - Go/No Go Call
        - UAT Sign off

         

        Delay in UAT completion:

        Below are some of the key issues that put UAT phase behind schedule in most of the projects.
        - Delay in UAT environment setup.
        - Some of the external interfaces are down or not available during certain part of the day due to routine maintenance that cuts into UAT test hours.
        - Test Data issues in UAT environment.
        - More defects being discovered during UAT phase.

        Cost associated with UAT

        Many people think that UAT phase does not have any associated cost as UAT is performed by clients or end users but that’s not true. Though UAT is performed by client or end users, below are the costs associated with UAT phase.
        - Cost of developers and Testers supporting UAT phase
        - Cost of setup and dedicated maintenance of Test environment for UAT phase.
        - Cost of diverting clients or end users to perform UAT instead performing their business tasks. Of course this cost does not impact company developing the software, however, UAT schedules usually gets squeezed due to this cost, which means long working hours for teams supporting UAT phase.

        Entry Criteria for UAT

        Below is the list of Entry Criteria for starting UAT.
        - Business and functional requirements are frozen and no further changes are anticipated.
        - Unit, Integration and System tests are completed.
        - Functional testing is completed and there are no Open Sev1 Defects and Sev2 defects. Incase they are some Sev3 or Sev4 defects open then a pre-approval is sought out from client to proceed with UAT with an understanding that pending Sev3 and Sev4 defects will either be fixed during UAT phase or fix is deferred to future releases or fix would be done within the warranty period.
        - UAT test environment is setup and external services are integrated and working.
        - Test Data required for UAT phase is setup in UAT environment as per specifications provided by clients or end users.
        - Test Closure report is prepared by Test Lead and approved by Test manager.
        - UAT test scenarios are identified and documented by clients or end users.
        - Development team and functional test teams are available to provide required support during UAT phase.

        Exit Criteria for UAT

        - All the UAT scenarios are executed; defects found during UAT are fixed and closed.
        - Any open defects are with the permissible or contractual agreement.
        - UAT Lead sends an official sign off email to indicate satisfactory completion of UAT phase.

        Best practices related to UAT

        - Plan for UAT during earlier phases of SDLC. Ensure Test Scenarios created by testing team have been reviewed by end users so that any missing scenarios are identified during design or development phases itself, which result in less number of UAT defects.
        - Most of the UAT defects logged are usually related to Test Data setup issues. Hence, it’s always advisable to get formal Test Data setup request from UAT lead much in advance. So that Test data can be setup in UAT environment and data setup can be validated by Testing team before UAT starts. This reduces number of issues related to test data setup and delay in waiting for correct test data to be setup.
        - Test environment coordinator role is very crucial for success of UAT, when UAT environment setup is complex or involves several third party/external services. Since UAT phases are usually planned for short duration, it is imperative to have Test environment functional during entire UAT phase. In complex information systems, there are chances that one or the other external services do undergo scheduled maintenance that can lead to downtime, resulting in delays and increase frustration of clients or end users.
        - Have UAT test scenarios executed by Testing team in advance. Testing team can request for UAT scenarios that the clients or end users would be testing, by doing so, testing team can proactively run those UAT scenarios, find probable UAT defects during testing phase itself and rather than allowing those defects to be discovered by clients or end users during UAT.
        - Testing and development teams to work in shifts to 24X7 provide support during UAT phase and to prevent any backlog of defect fix and retesting.
        - Defect fixes detected during UAT phase always needs to be retested by Testing team before they are actually tested by client or end users performing UAT. It is very critical that defect fixes are 100% successful, otherwise team will end up losing credibility.
        - Publish list of open defects to UAT team, so that there are not duplicate defects logged.

        Tools for UAT

        Tools required by UAT team are more on Test Management tools like Quality Center or Clear Quest to record test scenarios and document UAT results and map them to defects. Use of automated testing tool would be an over kill as UAT phases are usually short duration and UAT team do not intend to run multiple cycles of UAT.

         


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          what is security testing



          security-testing

           

          Security testing is one of the most important types of software testing that focuses on finding out vulnerabilities or weakness in the information system. Objective of Security testing is getting vulnerabilities identified and getting them plugged before they are exploited by unauthorized users or malicious programs.

          Information system includes all the software, hardware, Operating system, network, Database, configuration and most important “data”.

          information-system

          Security testing is not just about finding security holes in the software application alone; instead it is about testing entire information system as a whole for vulnerabilities or weakness that can be exploited.

          Security can be implemented using one more combinations of security measures like Security Policy, Physical, mechanical, electronic or through Software. Security testing would mean testing each of these security measures finding weakness and making it more robust.

           

          Implementing Security measures :

          Implementing Security measures starts with a proactive approach of identifying probable security risks, preparing threat profile, identifying preventive measures and applying appropriate security systems to prevent, monitor, detect and neutralize security threats. Once the Security systems are in place, monitor, detect and neutralize threats on an on going basis. IT security usually relies on automated systems and is usually sophisticated as the threats are more of virtual than physical.

          1) Prevention – Identify Security risks and build threat profile.
          2) Monitoring and Detection
          3) Neutralize Threats
          4) Upgrade Prevention measures or security policies over period of time.

           

          What is vulnerability?

          Vulnerability is a weakness or security hole in information system using which an attacker can gain access, damage, misuse, modify or disrupt part of or entire information system. Focus of Security Testing would be to identify all the vulnerabilities and get them plugged.

          Vulnerability window refers to the time duration for which security hole existed i.e. from the time it was introduced till the security hole was plugged and security threat was neutralized. Greater the Vulnerability window, greater is the probability of attackers exploiting the security hole.

           

          IT (Information technology) and Security

          Security requirements in IT (information technology) can be broadly classified as “Application or Software Security”, “Data Security”, “Information Security”, and “Network Security”.

          Application or Software Security:

          Application Security focuses on different stages of SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle), process, tools and deliverables that can lead to application or software vulnerability or weakness.

          Data Security:

          Data Security focuses on policies and methods that will help prevent intentional or accidental damage, access or misuse of data by authorized or un- authorized users or programs. Data Security primarily focuses on “Backup”, “encryption”, or “masking” of data.
          Data may be or may not be in human readable or understandable form, like Binary data that cannot be understood by human being. Where as “information” is summary and presentation of data in a way that can be read, understood by a human and that helps in decision making.

          Information Security:

          Information security focuses on protecting information from unauthorized access, misuse, modification or damage. Information security is usually thought as an alternate name of IT Security. However, Information Security is applicable for IT and Non IT as well, you might recollect seeing documents or files labeled as “Top Secret”, “Secret” or “Confidential”.
          Three principals of Information security are Confidentiality, Availability and Integrity.

          Confidentiality:

          refers to level of access, access rules are defined and access restrictions are in place. E.g. Top Secret information is accessible to VP and above.

          Availability:

          means information is available when needed and is accessible for authenticated and rightful users.

          Integrity:

          means information presented is correct and consistent through out.

          Network Security:

          most of the information systems are accessed over network be it internet or intranet. Network security refers to monitoring and preventing unauthorized use or misuse, neutralizing threats on the network. Most of the network security issues are due to hackers or bots or worms and malicious software that try to intrude into the network.

           

          Who is responsible for Information Security?

          Every stakeholder who is involved in any of the SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) phases right from conception phase till Decommissioning of the information system is responsible, this includes end users using the information system as well. However organization’s Information system security department and CSO (Chief Security Officer) are accountable for information system security. They are the ones who make the policies, identify security risks and prepare mitigation plan, propose adoption of industry security standards for the organization, educate users and stake holders of the organization about security policies and security measures adopted by providing appropriate trainings etc.

           

          Why Security Testing is required?

          Security Testing might seem like one of the software testing types that does not add value to end users and hence less important OR a type of investment with less or no ROI (Return on Investment). In reality, Security Testing is the key to existence and success of any Business.

          Security testing is needed for most of the applications; however the extent of Security testing required depends on the security risks, complexity of the software, exposure to threats and accessibility. All applications related to finance or military domain or web applications are usually at high risk and these applications have to be rigorously tested for Security flaws.

          In the last two decades, organizations have realized importance of Security testing as Governments have brought in regulations to ensure organizations provide required confidentially, security and privacy to customer data.

          US federal and state legislators have brought in certain regulations related to information security like Sarbanes-Oxley, HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), Payment Card Industry Standard (PCI), and FISMA (Federal Information Security Management Act).

          security-testing-importance

          Below are some of the reasons why security testing is important.
          1) Downtime: Most of the security flaws lead to service downtime and loss off revenue. Think about a popular Telecom website going down for about 1 day, it can lose revenue, customers, credibility and breach of SLAs which in turn can lead to penalties.
          2) Legal Issues: Security issues can lead to legal issues and complications. Think about an insurance system being hacked and SSN (Social Security Number) of company’s customers being posted on a forum. Customers are going to sue the company for such incidents. Such incidents can lead to legal issues and penalties.
          3) Brand Damage: With frequent downtime or leakage of confidential information reputation of the company can be damaged severely and can lead to loss or shutdown of business.
          4) Cost: Cost of every security issues exploited is several folds greater than the cost identifying and fixing them during development and Software Testing phases.

           

          Seven attributes of Security Testing

          security-testing-attributes

          Authentication:

          identification of a person or user or a program before accessing information system. Authentication can be implemented by using various means like User id & Password or Secret Questions and answers or biometric authentication or Token (e.g. RSA SecureID token) or even one time/temporary password sent as SMS. Some of the application may use one or more combinations of authentication methods.

          Authorization:

          once a user or program is authenticated, information system should limit access as per the privilege or permissions set for the user or program. Authorization is usually implemented with a Access control list OR by Categorizing users into groups and define privileges and restrictions for each of the groups OR granting or revoking privileges for individual users.

          Confidentiality:

          refers to information system’s ability to protect information or data from Un-authorized or less privileged users.
          Information system should protect confidentiality of the information at all the stages of information processing, storage and display.
          Confidentiality in an information system is enforced by defining User Groups, privileges, restrictions and usage of encryption. e.g. sensitive information like passwords, SSN (Social Security Number) etc., that are stored in database should be encrypted and should not be stored as plain text because confidentiality of the data or information needs to be protected. Database administrators or developers having access to database should not be able to see information or data to which they are not authorized to view.

          Availability:

          availability of information system may not seem to be related to security testing, however exploited systems can face huge downtime and also security patch upgrades should be confined to minimal downtime. Downtime can be due hardware and natural disasters as well. Availability refers to accessibility of the information system and its services when required to be used by authorized users. Most of the information systems usually have primary and fail over sites, when a primary site is down, then service requests are re-directed to fail over site, there by service are provided even when primary site is down or when it’s being patched. E.g. if a website is being used by customers across many countries then the expected availability would be 24X7. Similarly, a trading site is expected to be available for particular time of the day for public use, say 9 AM to 3:30 PM.

          Integrity:

          refers to reliability, consistency and accuracy of the information presented by the information system to its users. Information presented to users should be as per user groups, privileges and restrictions.

          Non-repudiation:

          means confirmation sent by receiver to sender that the requested services or information was successfully received as Digital confirmation e.g. Digital Certificates, this not only serves as acknowledgement but also helps to validate both sender and receiver is genuine.

          Resilience:

          refer to resistance to attacks; resilience can be built into information system using encryption, using SSL, extended authentication like use of one time password, 2 layer authentication or token.

          Security Testing process:

          Below are the broad steps involved in Security Testing planning and execution for any given information system.

          • Understand business objective and security goals of the organization. Organization might have planned to achieve PCI compliance etc., so these have to be factored in your security test plan.
          • Understand requirements of the application.
          • Understand how information system is setup like hardware, Operating Systems, technology used for development of Software and Network.
          • Identify Security Risks and vulnerabilities.
          • Prepare Threat profile.
          • Prepare Test Plan to address test Security risks, vulnerabilities and threats identified.
          • Prepare traceability matrix for each of the risks, vulnerabilities and threats identified and to be tested.
          • Identify Security testing tools required. All the security tests cannot be done manually, so usage of security testing tool might become a necessary. Also, usage of tools will help to execute Security Tests faster and more reliably.
          • Document Security tests.
          • Execute Security Tests and retest defect fixes.
          • Execute Regression Tests.
          • Prepare Security Test report detailing risks, vulnerabilities and threats contained and the ones which are still open.

          Type of tests to perform during Security Testing ?

          Below is the list of different types of Tests carried out a part of Security Testing.

          types-of-security-testing

          SQL Injection:

          Usually application takes input from user on GUI and builds SQL query at run time.

          Port Scan:

          Port scan is done to check if there are any port open with need, port scan alone does not expose vulnerability, however it is the starting point for further tests like vulnerability Scan.

          Vulnerability Scan:

          means scanning information system (software, OS, Database, application server, web server, Network etc.) for weakness and know security bugs that can be used to gain access or disrupt services or destroy data. Vulnerability Scan usually includes port scanner, Network, Database and web application vulnerability scanners. Vulnerability Scanners are usually automated; these programs could be written by ethical hackers or can be off the shelf software.

          Server Validation:

          Application should be designed to have both client side and server side validations. Applications should ensure critical validations are enforced at both client slide and server side. So that, if client slide validation is bypassed, server side validation restricts users from performing restricted actions. E.g. most of the browsers allow turning off JavaScript, if a web application is validating only using JavaScript then this creates security vulnerability.

          Session Management:

          Session ids created should be Random and long alphanumeric string that is hard to guess rather than just incremental numbers. Sequential session ids or Simple session id format results in weak session management.

          Browser Caching:

          Application should be designed not to store sensitive information in browser cache. Like your Bank account details or SSN (Social Security Numbers) etc., as these information can be viewed by simply viewing browser history in “Offline” mode.

          Database policies:

          Getting access to Database is usually the primary goal for most of the hackers as they know that most of the information they are looking for is stored in the database.

          • Confidential data stored in the database should always be masked or encrypted like SSN, Credit Card numbers, Passwords, Salary etc.
          • All the passwords of default database user ids should be changed. Most of the hackers start looking for User ids that have default passwords when they want to hack databases.
          • IP restrictions to connect to database should be enforced. E.g. only application servers and IPs of administrator PCs should be allowed to connect to database. This will restrict unauthorized users from trying to connect to database directly over internet or intranet.

          Classification of Hackers:

          Hackers are classified based on their type, motive and experience. Hacking itself cannot be considered to be bad, what makes it bad is the motive behind hacking.

          hackers

          Ethical Hackers:

          also referred to as white hat hackers, are the ones who are interested to break into a information system to expose the weakness or vulnerabilities and they do not have any intention of misusing or causing damage. Security testers are indeed ethical hackers.

          Black Hats:

          are the most experienced and skilled people, who exploit, misuse or even destroy information systems for their personal gain (usually for money). Most of the Black hats usually end up getting involved in cyber crimes.

          Hacktivist:

          is a word derived from two words “Hacking” and “Activist”, these are people who do not hack information systems for money or personal gain, they hack information system because of their ideology or religious beliefs or for a social cause. They usually try to bring down the information system or alter website content to post their message or try to make it temporarily unavailable.

          Script kiddies or script junkies:

          are hackers who are less knowledgeable in hacking and they mostly rely on scripts or software’s written by other experienced hackers. Most of the script kiddies try hacking for fun.

          Bots:

          are programs written by experienced hackers which try to invade information systems and steal information and upload data to another server maintained by hacker.


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            Manual Testing



            Different people have different perception about Manual Testing. No matter how people perceive manual testing, importance of it will always remain the same.

            importance of manual testing

            What is Manual Testing ?

            Manual Testing is the process of executing software to validate it against software requirements and to find defects / bugs.

            Manual testing, as the name suggests, testing is done by a human being without using automated testing tools.

            Manual testing can be Continue reading →


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              Jobs in software testing



              Increase your chances of getting Software Testing Job, is the theme of this article. If you want to understand secret behind people who are successful in getting software testing jobs, then this is the article that you need to read. Being successful in getting Software Testing Jobs is all about the preparation, approach and attitude that makes some people more successful in getting Software Testing Jobs of their liking.

              “Take away” from this article for you, is to find out what are the things you are already doing right and what other areas you should focus in order to increase changes of getting a Software Testing Job in a good Software company.

              I have spoken to many freshers and experienced software testers and enquired them on the reasons they think due to which they were not successful in getting Software Testing Job in a good company. Most of the answers provided by them were biased and they did not want to acknowledge their faults or shortcomings, which is a human tendency. However, when I analyzed from a neutral point of view. I could figure out below reasons that were the root cause for most of them which were preventing them from clearing software testing interviews and not being able to get a Software Testing Job of their liking. So what are those root causes?

               

              software testing jobs
              Click on the above image to see image in full scale.

               

              1) Lack of Software Testing Knowledge: Most of the freshers and experienced software testers don’t enhance their knowledge on Software Testing and Testing Tools on a regular basis. If you don’t agree to this, then pause for a moment, ask the below questions to yourself

              a) How many software testing books have you read in the past 1 year?
              b) How may software testing tools have you learnt in past 6 months?
              c) What are the business domains you have understood in past 1 year?
              d) For how many years have you have been thinking of taking up software testing certification or learning a testing tool?
              e) How many different types of software testing have you explored in the past 1 year?
              f) What are the different software test estimation techniques you have tried in past 1 year?

              software testing knowledge

              Click on the above image to see image in full scale.

              In order to be successful on the current job, as well as to be successful in getting a new job, one has to keep upgrading their knowledge on a regular basis and not just try to learn something before attending interviews. Develop a habit of learning something new related to Software Testing, Software Testing Tools or popular Business domains like Banking, Telecom, Insurance or Retail on regular basis etc., One has to define and set short term and long term learning objectives in order to succeed in this competitive world.

              One of my close friends who is experienced in manual testing, has been planning to learn QTP since last 2 years, even today he has not learnt a bit about QTP. So, just having ambition of learning is not enough, one should plan and track the progress. Like my friend, there are many software testers out there who have ambition of learning something new but who don’t put efforts in accomplishing it.

              Take Away: I would request you to identify and document your Short term and long term “Learning Objectives”. Create a “Learning Plan” based on your learning objectives and check progress on a regular basis. If you implement this idea documenting learning objectives and tracking it, then I will consider that my article achieved its objective.

              2) Poor Professional and Social Networking: It may be hard to accept this fact for some people but it’s true. Larger is your professional and social network, greater would be success of getting a Software Testing Job when you are looking for one. Maintain good relationship with your colleagues, friends and keep expanding your social network on a daily basis. Your social network grows not just by knowing more people but keeping in touch with them on regular basis, internet applications like facebook, Google Circle, twitter has made the task of being connected much easier. Most of you are already using facebook but how much time do you use it for fun than to exchange knowledge related to Software Testing or Testing Tools? You may be good in socializing but how many of your contacts are related to Software Testing profession? That’s what matters when you are searing for a Software Testing Job. It’s not just enough to know more people, what matters most is, how many in your social circle will extend their help when you are looking for a Software Testing Job.

              social networking
              Click on the above image to see image in full scale.

              Take Away: I would request you to use Social networking sites to build your professional network as well. Include seniors and experienced people in your social network, it helps. Believe me; if you act on this suggestion, you will be very thankful to me at some point of time in future.

              3) Not trying through all channels: In most of the companies recruitment teams makes use of from various channels like Employee referrals, Job portals, external recruitment agencies and contracting agencies to source candidate profiles. Employee referral is the most preferred channels by recruitment teams because every company aims at hiring talented people. Hence candidates referred by employees are considered to be equally or more talented than the person referring them. Don’t forget to make most of the employee referrals. Below is the list of channels listed in the order of preference of recruitment teams for sourcing candidates.

              recruitment channels
              Click on the above image to see image in full scale.

              a) Employee Referral : Candidates are considered to be good and trust worthy as they are referred by their employees.
              b) External Recruitment agencies: Agencies may charge fees for placing candidates in companies, these agencies usually get to know about openings in different companies on regular basis.
              c) Job Portals: Post your profile in most popular job portals. Update or Save your CV at least once a week, so that your CV stays on the top of the search list.
              d) Contracting Agencies: If you are desperately looking for a software testing job, then this is the option you should try. As contracting agencies hire people on their payrolls and place them on contract in good companies in a short span of time. Most of the contracting agencies also provide option of “contractor to employee conversion” in the company to which contractors are deputed.

              Take Away: Make best use of your social network and employee referrals. Refer your friends and ex-colleagues when they are looking for a job and in turn they would help you at some point of time in future. Help and be helped!!!

              4) Not being Interview Ready: Most of the candidates do not clear interviews because they are not prepared for the interview. Just like academic exams, knowing the subject is one aspect and writing the answer that will convince the person evaluating answer paper and getting maxim marks is another aspect that matters the most. Hence preparation for interviews always plays a pivotal role. Most of the candidates have good understanding of software testing and related concepts but it’s even more important to explain in simple, precise manner and sometimes answering with an example. Preparing for interview would mean going through the list of all possible interview questions and writing mock answers. Prepare for interview on regular basis and be “interview ready” at any point of time. As you will not know at what point of time you would get an interview call after you have floated your CV in various channels ( Job portals, employee referral or consulting agencies). At any point of time if you feel you are not prepared for interview, request for postponement of interview date. It’s always better not to attend interview than to fail because you are not prepared.

              interview ready
              Click on the above image to see image in full scale.

              Take Away: “Be ‘interview ready’ at any given point of time”. Use this forum to prepare for interviews by providing mock answers.

              5) Not using good CV Template: CV is the first selling point of any candidate. Time spent in preparing CV and making it more sellable is worth the time spent. First impression of the candidate is built on their CVs and the basis for calling for interview. Most of the companies do screening of CV before they call for skill interview. Most of the interview questions would come from your CV, so its very important to prepare for probable questions that would be based on what you have written in your CV. On the other hand , don’t try to fake your experience in CV, otherwise you can get blacklisted.

              good cv resume template
              Click on the above image to see image in full scale.

              Use a good CV template which highlights sections like
              1) Certifications
              2) Awards & Recognitions
              3) Achievements
              4) Value you created for the clients/companies you wanted for.
              5) Trainings you have undergone, the ones you have taken or that were provided by your current or previous companies.
              6) Experience in niche areas of testing like usability testing, security testing, mobile application testing etc.
              7) Experience in Software Testing Tools that you have used. As on today, there is a great demand for experienced Performance Test Engineers and especially for loadrunner.

              Take Away: CV is your selling point. Ensure your CV highlights all the positive aspects like achievements, certifications, awards and trainings.

              6) Not searching Job at right time: Most of the people search for jobs in desperation when they are facing issue with their boss or peers or when the company is not doing well and at verge of closing or when they are waiting for projects on bench for a long time. Ideally, one has to start searching for new job when the career growth in the current company has reached saturation point or when they want to work on the latest technology or to work on latest software testing tools etc. Also, remembers when a person is out of job then he/she will have to compromise on designation or pay package. So, don’t wait till your company closes down or till you’re out of Job.

              searching job
              Click on the above image to see image in full scale.

              Take Away: Reason behind your software testing Job search should not be desperation instead it should be motivation to grow in your Software Testing Career.

              7) Poor communication skills: Improve your oral and written communication. Usually, communication has not been an issue for people who have been living in USA or UK for long. However, it is for people who are from India, China or Philippines, at least 15% to 25% of the candidates don’t get selected during interviews because of poor communication or poor accent. Good oral and written communication is essential for performing better job in Information Technology industry and since most of the clients are from USA or UK it becomes a necessity to have good oral and written communication. Take-up a good English speaking course, it’s worth it. Good communication is required for Software Testing and several other roles in IT Industry like Project management or Business Analyst.

              Take Away: If your colleagues or supervisor has pointed out that you need to improve on communication, then please take appropriate courses to improve your communication skills.

              8) Not serious about testing: Some people try for Software Testing Jobs because they feel getting a Software Testing Job is much easier than getting a software development job or they think that Software Testing Job will provide a stepping stone for freshers to move on to software development at later point of time. Remember, first question a interviewer would ask is “Why are you choosing software testing? why not development?” etc. If you are not serious about choosing software testing as your career, interviewer will find out, as your answer will not be convincing and will increase your chances of not getting the software testing job.

              Take Away: Software Testing should be your passion and your area of interest. If you are serious about software testing career then it will not be hard to find as Software Testing Job for yourself, even though you are a fresher.

              We are very thankful to our guest writer Hari Iyer for his second article on Software testing jobs. Hari, is working as software Test Manager in one of the reputed Software companies in Bangalore (India). We hope this article will help freshers and experienced software testers alike.


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                Software Testing Training



                Software Testing Training is not only important and required for freshers but also equally important and required for experienced software testers as well. However, training needs and course content differs for freshers and experienced software testers. Software Testing Training does not only mean, trainings on software Testing Basics; there are trainings available on Software Testing Tools, Test Estimation, Security Testing, Usability Testing, Software Testing Certification oriented courses, Software Quality Assurance (SQA) topics like Six Sigma, CMM and other Software Engineering related topics like UML, Technology specific trainings Database and Unix that are still required to become a good software tester.

                Fresher and experienced testers needs relevant trainings:

                Software Testing Training

                Be it fresher looking for a software testing job or an experienced software tester looking for career growth or job change or a pay hike or for a certification. Most of the training institutes build their training courses keeping current IT industry and corporate needs in mind. Training institutes also upgrade their course content time-to-time to keep it industry relevant and up to date. Hence, whether you want to take-up a training now or later or not interested to take-up any testing training at all, I would still advise freshers and experienced software testers to read through course content offered of various Software testing training institutes to know about topics that are being taught on Software Testing, Test Automation and related topics that are currently in demand. Going through the course content offered by various institutes will help you to assess yourself against the knowledge that is required to succeed in Software Testing career, to identify knowledge gap that you need to bridge in order to be successful and list of new skills to acquire or testing tools that you need to learn. Once you are fully aware of your knowledge gap, provided you have the required time, money and interest, you can decide to join suitable training related to software testing or bridge the knowledge gap by self learning.

                Training on software testing definitely helps freshers in getting a Software Testing Jobs when it comes to Off-campus hiring. Trainings on advanced Software testing topics like Software Test Estimation, Test Data Design, Security Testing, software testing tools or Certification courses for Test Architect etc., helps experienced software testers to progress in their career faster than their peer or colleagues.

                In this article, I will explain different modes through which software testing training is delivered, different courses for software testing, ideal course content for fresher and experienced software testers, how to decide which training institute to join.

                Software Testing Trainings can be delivered in any of the modes below.

                software testing training

                1) Classroom Training: Classroom trainings are traditional way of teaching, however due to advancement in technology, virtual classroom training sessions are replacing traditional classroom training sessions at a fast pace. Classroom trainings provide good interaction with trainers and usually classroom sessions are followed by lab sessions to practice what was taught during the classroom sessions. This type of training is very helpful and required for freshers who want to learn software testing basics and very effective for learning software testing tools. Classroom trainings are very cost effective for learning Software Testing tools like QTP or Loadrunner as students can learn these Software testing tools without having to worry about software licensing or having to purchase expensive hardware setup like multiple servers required to perform load testing, or SAP environment setup to carry out Test Automation on SAP etc.

                2) Online Training: This type of training focuses on delivering trainings over the internet though in the form of websites, wikis and videos. Online trainings are less interactive but provide lot of flexibility, one can take trainings during any time of the day based on their availability and good part is most of the Online Software Testing training can be accessed in any part of the world as they would be available on the WWW (world wide web). If best training on software testing is being provided by an institute in California, one can attend it being in India!!! Online Trainings are effective, for learning Software Testing Basis and even Software Testing tools. However, online training lacks lab session and is not so effective when it comes to learning Software testing tools like QTP or Loadrunner or Selenium as they cannot practice. However, with advent of cloud computing and SAAS (Software as service), very soon online trainings will also be able to provide lab sessions as well. In next couple of years, people will be no longer be searching internet for terms like “software testing training in chennai” or “software testing training in bangalore” or any location specific search, instead they would searching for online software testing training or virtual Software Testing Trainings and other related terms on search engines.

                3) Offline Training: Is a way of teaching, where course content is provided as printed material or delivered on electronic media like CD/DVD or Software testing eBook etc., usually this type of training is cost effective but lacks interaction with the trainer and is more of self learning.

                4) Internship: is one of the ways to get trained on a particular technology or domain, course content is more job oriented and also training is designed based on the business interests of the organization rather than what’s important from the career point of view of the candidate. Trainings provided during internship can delivered using any of the methods mentioned above. Best part of the internship is one can learn without paying fees instead they paid.

                5) On the Job Training: in this mode of training, focus is on learning skills and technology which is required to perform a particular type of Software Testing job. Learning is usually limited to specific area of work like manual testing or only automated testing or even it can be just testing tool specific like QTP or RFT or Loadrunner or Selenium etc.

                Software Testing Training for freshers:

                As mentioned earlier Software Testing training is required for freshers and ideally course for freshers should cover below topics.

                1) Software Testing fundamentals:

                2) Software Testing Types:

                3) Test Scenarios and Test Case Design:

                4) Test Planning:

                • Introduction to Test Management Software like QC (Quality Center).
                • Creating and maintaining Requirements Traceability.
                • Detailed session on Test Case Peer review.
                • Different deliverables to be produced during Test Planning phase.

                5) Test Execution and Reporting:

                • Introduction to Test execution planning, Test Cycles, Regression test cycles.
                • Importance of creating reusable test cases.
                • Defect reporting using Test management software.
                • Best practices to be followed while reporting defects.
                • Test reporting templates.

                6) Software Testing Best Practices:

                • Importance of Software requirements, why mapping of Test Cases to Software requirements is necessary. Impact of volatile software requirements on success of Software Testing.
                • Best practices to be followed in Test Case creation, Test Case design, Test Estimation, Defect reporting and Test Reporting.

                7) Test Automation:

                • Introduction to Test Automation and Performance Testing.
                • Detailed session to Test Frameworks.
                • Hands-on experience to one of the popular Test Automation tools like QTP (Quick Test Professional) or IBM Functional Tester or Selenium and Load testing tools like Loadrunner or OpenSTA.

                 

                Software Testing Training for experienced:

                Training can include the some or most of the topics mentioned in above section “Software Testing Training for freshers”. However, below mentioned topics is required to be covered for experienced software testers.

                1) Test Management:

                • Detailed sessions on Test Lead and Test manager deliverables for each phase of Software Development and Software Test Life Cycle.
                • Understanding Test Maturity Model. Assessment of Test processes currently being followed in the organization. Proposing long term and short term recommendations after assessment.
                • Understanding Cost of Quality (COQ) and implications of inadequate testing.
                • Understanding of different types of management styles ” autocratic”, “paternalistic”, and “democratic”. How to apply them, for whom and in what situation.
                • Session on reasons for a project to fail.
                • Managing Risks related to Software Testing Phase.
                • Project Stakeholder management.
                • Software Testing Team building, Motivation and retention.

                2) Test Estimation:

                • Introduction and importance of Test Effort Estimation.
                • Importance of identifying key assumptions and Risks during Test Estimation.
                • Different software test effort estimation approaches like Top down, Bottom Up, Delphi technique, Function Point analysis and custom estimator.
                • Best practices related to Software Test estimation.
                • Approach and Templates to be used for Test Estimation.
                • How to choose Test Effort Estimation techniques for custom development projects that use Java, .Net, ASP, C#, VB .Net etc., and Testing of Packaged software applications like SAP, Oracle eBusiness Suite.
                • Practical session on Test Estimation.

                3) Test Planning:

                • Introduction to IEEE standards on Test Planning.
                • Detailed sessions Test Plan and Test Strategy document creation and maintenance.
                • Detailed session on Test Management Software Administration like, QC Administration or administration of Clear Case and Clear Quest, topics covering tool setup, User management and other administration activities.
                • Deciding on Test Cycles for a project or release.
                • Deciding on the Test Team size.
                • Best practices on Test Planning.
                • Identifying and prioritizing of Test Cases.
                • Defining Test Metrics to be capture for the Project.
                • Defining exit and entry criteria for Testing Phase.
                • Test planning for Risk based testing.

                4) Environment and Test Data management:

                • Basics of Test Environment Setup.
                • Understanding components of Test environment like hardware, software (operating software), network, database, application server, web server and configuration.
                • Best practices in managing Hardware and software licenses
                • Optimal utilization of servers among projects to maximize ROI.

                5) Test Execution and Reporting:

                • Importance of reporting Critical defects during earlier stage of Software Testing.
                • How to be effective in exploratory and ad-hoc testing.
                • Reporting and ensuring critical or important defects are fixed first.
                • Tracking and controlling Test Execution.
                • Importance of Tracking Defect aging and reporting them to stakeholders.

                6) Test Metrics:

                • Understanding different types of metrics, Goal-question metric, McCabe’s complexity, etc.,
                • Key Test Metrics to be captured during Test Planning, Test Execution and Post implementation. Testing metrics related to Testing Team productivity, Test Coverage, Defect removal efficiency etc.,
                • Detailed sessions on McCabes Complexity Metric.
                • When and who should generate metrics. How to interpret metrics captured.

                7) Test Automation:

                • Best practices on Test Automation, Coding Standards, and Reusability of test scripts.
                • Test Automation effort estimation techniques.
                • Sessions on test automation for different types of User Interfaces like GUI (Graphic user interface), API (Application programmers Interface), CLI (Command line interface), web services.
                • Detailed and hands on experience to different Test Automation frameworks like Data-driven and Keyword-driven.
                • Detailed sessions and hands on exposure to popular commercial Test Automation tools, IBM Functional Tester and QTP (Quick Test Professional) and open source Test automation tool like Selenium.
                • Detailed sessions and hands on exposure to and Load testing tools like Loadrunner, IBM Rational Performance Tester and Open source load testing tool OpenSTA.
                • Understanding performance parameters, analyzing performance test reports and identifying bottlenecks.

                 

                Which Software Testing Training institute to join ?

                This is the first question that anybody will have who has decides to take up Software Testing Training. Below are some of the parameters one should consider before taking up trainings.

                testing training institute

                1) Best Software Testing training institute: If you are fresher and wanting to choose software testing as your career, it’s always better to take Software testing training from best and reputed institute for Software Testing. Certificates issued by reputed institutes are valued in the IT industry.

                2) Testing Training and Certification: There are Software Testing training institutes which coach people on Software Testing and prepare students for industry acknowledged certifications like ISEB or CSTE or PMP etc., These are the best preferred training courses, they might be little expensive but they are worth it.

                3) Job Placement: Only some of the institutes have Job placement option, however very few institutes are successful getting jobs for their students. Hence, it’s very important to check on the % of people who got jobs through the training institute. One needs to check on % of candidates placed in software companies rather just placement. Some training institutes place students as faculty in their own institute or other institutes, just to boost up their placement percentage.

                4) Course content: Before deciding on which training institute to join, one should understand topics covered in the trainings offered by various training institutes. One needs to assess breadth and depth of the software testing topics covered in the course. Being more knowledgeable is the only way to impress interviewer and even to perform better on the job.

                5) Classroom trainings: Trainings that are conducted in classrooms are preferable over online trainings. As classroom trainings are more effective and allow interaction with trainer. Even trainings provided online as virtual classrooms also should be fine when you the reputed institutes you want to join are not in your city.

                6) Training Cost: Cost of the Training is also one of the important factors, some of the training institutes charge exorbitantly, so one should always compare course content of various institutes and training cost, decide on which training institute can provide maximum ROI (return on investment).

                7) Lab Sessions: Prefer institute that provides access to Software Testing tools and Test environments to practice. Trainings that target only theory but no practice session will not be of much use.

                8) Reference: Contact and take opinion of people who are currently or who have completed trainings from the institute, check on their opinion about the institute, course content, value for money, Job placement policy, and statistics on how many of their students are placed in reputed Software Testing companies.


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                  What is Test Case



                  Test Case is a terminology related to Software Testing and Software Engineering. Test Case can be defined as set of “Actions”, “input data” and “Expected” results.

                  Test Case = Actions + Input Data + Expected results

                  Click on the above image to see full sized image.

                  A good Test Case is one which is more realistic, validates requirements and intends to find maximum defects.

                  Other Test Case Definitions:

                  IEEE defines Test Case as
                  A set of test inputs, execution conditions, and expected results developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.

                  Boris Beizer defines a test as
                  A sequence of one or more subtests executed as a sequence because the outcome and/or final state of one subtest is the input and/or initial state of the next. The word ‘test’ is used to include subtests, tests proper, and test suites.

                  Test Case can be categorized as two types Informal Test Cases and Formal Test Cases.

                  Test Case Categories

                  Test Case Categories

                  Click on the above image to see full sized image.

                   

                  1) Informal Test Cases: Characteristics of Informal Test Cases

                  • Test Cases are usually not documented.
                  • If Test Cases are documented then it will be very briefly documented, like one line description on what do and what to expect as outcome.
                  • Test cases are applicable for applications that are quite common and simple to test like a “Calculator” application.
                  • Tests are performed based on Test scenarios rather than specific Test Conditions.
                  • When there is no formal documentation available and the person testing the software has very good knowledge of how the software is expected to function. Informal test Cases are also applicable for some of the software testing types like Sanity Testing, Usability Testing etc.
                  • Test Cases are intended to cover more of Happy path/Positive conditions rather than Negative conditions.

                  2) Formal Test Cases: Characteristics of Formal Test Cases

                  • Test Cases are detailed and well documented.
                  • Test Cases usually have multiple or several Test steps, input data and expected output/result.
                  • Test Cases cover Happy Path / Positive conditions and Negative conditions.
                  • Test Cases are documented using a Test Management Software like Quality Center (QC) or Clear Quest IBM Clear Quest or any of the Standardized test case templates like excel or word.
                  • Test cases are derived from Requirements, Design documents and Use Cases.
                  • Test cases created are traceable with requirements using Requirements Traceability Matrix.
                  • Test Cases design techniques like BVA (Boundary Value Analysis) , Equivalence Partitioning (EP) , Decision Tables , Error Guessing and Cause Effect Graph techniques.
                  • Test Case is reviewed, by peer (peer review) or SME (SME review).
                  • Test Cases are version controlled.
                  • Test Cases change log is maintained. Every change to a Test Case has to be reviewed.
                  • Test Execution is planned, tracked and Test Execution results are logged for each step of the Test Case.

                  How to write a Test Case or Test Cases ?

                  Test Cases have to be created systematically; otherwise one will end up creating redundant test cases or test steps and cannot ensure 100% requirement coverage.

                  So, what do we mean by creating test cases systematically? Refer to below Test Case creation diagram; and you will come to know what I am referring to. Before jumping to Test Case creation, one needs to identify Test Scenarios based on Requirements document, Use case diagrams and high level design documents. Once Test Scenarios are documented, reviewed and finalized, one can start identifying Test Conditions and Expected results for each of the Test Scenarios and Detailed design documents. Once Test Conditions and Expected results are documented, reviewed and finalized, Test Cases can be derived to cover one more related test conditions and expected results.

                   

                  Writing Test Case, create Test Cases

                  Click on the above imageto see full sized image. 

                  Test case design and test case generation :


                  Below are some of the popular Test Case design and test case generation techniques. Test Case Design Techniques listed below tries to derive optimal test conditions and uncover unique class of errors, however there will be few common Test conditions derived when multiple Test Case design technique are used. Each of the below mentioned Test Case Technique is used to generate different Test conditions related to Boundary conditions, Error classes, multiple or complex decisions and conditions and where most of the defects lurk.

                  i. BVA (Boundary Value Analysis) : Boundary Value Analysis focuses on testing boundary conditions e.g.: If we have to derive test conditions to test a text box that accepts age between 18 and 100. Then test conditions would be 17, 18, 19, 50, 99,100 and 101. As you can see, test conditions focus on testing just below boundary, at boundary and over boundary.

                  ii. Equivalence Partitioning (EP) : Equivalence partitioning focuses deriving test conditions based on classes of data at a minimal of 2 classes i.e. Positive and error classes of data. e.g. If we have to test password text box, Positive class would be valid password and invalid class would be password in different case, incomplete password or different password.

                  iii. Decision Tables : Decision tables help in deriving test conditions where multiple decision variables like (if-else-if… conditions) are involved. Just as in below case of Bank interest calculation.

                  decission table = conditions, actions and rules

                  Decission Table

                  Click on the above image to see full sized image.

                  iv. Error Guessing : Error guessing technique helps to device Test conditions based on the domain knowledge, prior experience in testing of similar software or application(s) built on similar technology or prior experience in Software Testing. Error guessing technique is effective, when tester deriving Test Conditions is more experienced Software Tester, has good knowledge of Business domain and technology on which software is built.

                  v. Cause Effect Graph techniques : Cause (C) and Effect (E) diagram is analogous to Test Case “Action” and “Expected Result”, hence this technique is an effective tool to visualize and derive probable combinations of different test conditions and expected result.

                  Cause Effect Graph Notations
                  Cause Effect Graph Notations

                  Click on the above image to see full sized image.

                  Let us draw Cause and Effect Graph for “Rate of interest calculation”:

                  List of Causes represented by letter “C”:
                  C1: Age of depositor >= 18 and < 60
                  C2: Age of depositor >= 60
                  C3: Deposit Term is < 1 Year
                  C4: Deposit Term is >= 1 Year and < 2 Years
                  C5: Deposit Term is >= 2 Year and < 5 Years
                  C6: Deposit Term is > 5 Years

                  List of Effects represented by letter “E”:
                  E1: Rate of Interest is 8.5%
                  E2: Rate of Interest is 9.5%
                  E3: Rate of Interest is 10.0%
                  E4: Rate of Interest is 11.0%

                  Cause Effect Graph Example
                  Cause Effect Graph Example

                  Click on the above image to see full sized image. 

                  Points keep in mind prior-to or while writing Test Cases:

                  - Better Test Case: Objective of writing test cases should be to write better test cases that is intended to test software requirements in detail and also to find maximum number of defects.

                  - Document Sign off: Start writing Test Cases only when documents (Requirements/Design/Use Case) are signed off by all required Project Stakeholders (including clients if required as per Test Process followed). Otherwise you will end up in wasting lot of time in Test Case rework.

                  - Test Case Naming Convention: Name Test Cases that will identify objective of Test Case, like TC_Login_REQ1_3, as you can understand from Test Case name, Login page is being tested and requirements Req-01 and Req-03 are covered in the test case. Incase Test Case Naming convention is not already defined for your project then take initiative and get it defined.

                  - Keep Test Case Simple: Write Test Cases in simple plain language and do not use ambiguous or complicated statements.

                  - Detail Test Cases: Write Test Cases in detail and do not write generic statements like “Validate all the fields in Preview page”, instead explain which field has to be verified for what value.

                  - Embed Test Data: Provide details of the Test Data to be used for each of the Test Step.

                  - Track Test Case changes: Maintain Test Case history to capture changes made to Test Cases.

                  - Test Case Priority: Assign a priority for each of the Test Case created; this will help in identifying and tracking execution of higher priority test cases to be executed before executing medium or lower priority test cases. Defining priority also helps in building effective Smoke Test or regression test suites or helps in identifying test cases for Risk based Testing.

                  - Others will execute your test cases: Do not presume that you will be the only one who would be executing the test cases written by you. Write test cases presuming even others will execute them and hence test cases have to be detailed.

                  - Use Test Case Design Techniques: Always use Test Case design techniques (listed above) to derive test conditions.

                  - 100% Requirement Coverage is a must: Check and ensure 100% requirement coverage and track the requirements covered, test cases written should be tracked with a Requirements traceability matrix.

                  - Reusable Test Steps: Create reusable Test Steps and call it in other Test Cases, like Login, Logout and other common Test Steps can be made as reusable Test Steps and call it in other Test Cases. Incase there are changes in Login or Logout steps; you don’t have to change across many test cases. Test Case and Test suite maintenance becomes quicker and takes less effort. Test Management Software like Quality Center (QC) provides such facility to create reusable steps and call the reusable steps in other test cases. Hence Test Management software is more preferable over Test Case templates that are built in Excel or word.

                  - Test Case review is a must: Ensure all the test cases are reviewed by required stake holders (peer reviewed or SME reviewed or client review) based on the Test Process practiced in your project or company.

                  - Use Test Management software: Always, promote and use Test Management software like Quality Center (QC) or IBM Clear Quest. Software Test Management Software helps in maintaining traceability Matrix, its easier to map requirements to Test Cases to Defects and Viz. It is also convenient to plan test execution, maintain test log and these Test management software come with lot of ready to run reports and inbuilt reporting templates, which helps to generate quality reports quickly. Incase your Project or company is not in a position to fund for these tools then suggest usage of Open Source Test Management tools like Bugzilla Testopia which is a Test Case management software and extension of Bugzilla.

                  What is Test Case Template ?

                  Template is a stencil or a predefined layout that is used to ensure all the similar deliverables are formatted alike and capture same data irrespective of who creates the deliverable, its not longer person dependent instead its process dependent. Usage of template is part of stable and mature Test Process.
                  Even Test Management software provides Test Case Template and Defect Templates to define the data points to be captured or displayed on the forms.

                  MS Excel or Word Test Case templates are usual used when Test Management software is not available. Test Case template created in Excel is usually preferred as it’s more readable, also it allows usage of formals and cell auto formatting to highlight Test step and Test Case result. Excel Test Case template also makes Test Reporting easier by using formulas that can consolidate results of all the Test Cases, where with Test Case template created in word result consolidation has to be done manually. Refer to below templates created in Excel and word and see the differences and convenience for yourself.

                  Irrespective of which template is being used, Test Template or Test management software would capture below attributes related to Test Case.

                  Please download sample Test Case templates with examples ( Test Case for Login ) created in word an Excel.

                  Download (Test Case Template.docx) word Test Case template with example Test Case.

                  Download (Test Case Template.xlsx) Excel Test Case Template with example Test Case.

                   

                  Screenshots of Excel Test Case Template:

                  Test Case
                  Test Case Summary and Result

                   

                  Test Case

                  Test Case Objective, Dependencies and Pre-requisites

                   

                  Test Case
                  Test Case

                   

                  Test Case
                  Test Case History

                   

                  Screenshots of Word Test Case Template:

                   Test Case Template

                  Test Case Summary and Result
                   
                  Test Case Template

                  Test Case Objective, Dependencies and Pre-requisites

                   

                  Test Case Template
                  Test Case Template

                   

                  Test Case Template
                  Test Case History

                   

                  Fields of a Test Case Template :

                  • Project Name: Name of the Project for which Test Case created and would be executed on.
                  • Release Name: Name of the Release for which Test Case created and would be executed on.
                  • Requirements Tested: List of all requirements tested in the Test Case.
                  • Test Case Name: Name of the Test Case, should use a convention like TC-[Mod Name]_REQ[requirement numbers tested]
                  • Test Case Objective: One of the key fields of Test Case template that explains the objective of the Test Case and what is being tested.
                  • Test Case Pre-execution Steps: Describes of any actions to be performed before executing the test case.
                  • Post Execution Clean-up Steps: Describes of any clean-up actions to be performed after execution of test case. Clean up activity can be any action that has to be performed on Test Environment, OS Configuration, Application settings, Test Data or Database to bring them back to state that was before execution of the test case. So that actions or changes brought in by execution of the test case does not influence results or outcome of remainder of the Test Cases to be executed.
                  • Test Case Dependencies: Details on the dependencies on other Test Cases, Test Data, Test Environment, OS Configuration, Application Settings, Data and time, External Services, Stubbed Services etc.,
                  • Test Case Priority: Priority of the Test Case to indicate the order of execution e.g. P1 (Critical), P2 (High), P3 (Medium), P4 (Low).
                  • Test Case Complexity: Complexity of the test case will help in Test Case assignment during Test Planning phase. Simple and Medium complex test cases can be assigned to fresher or less experience Testers.
                  • Test Case Created by: Name or the ID of the person who created the Test Case.
                  • Test Case Created on Date: Date on which Test Case created. This field helps in deriving metrics like “Test Case creation rate” related to Test Creation phase.
                  • Test Case Reviewed by: This field indicates Name or ID of person who reviewed Test Case. This field helps to know who reviewed and also to identify test cases reviewed and to be reviewed.
                  • Test Case Review Date: This field indicates date on which Test Case reviewed. Incase a test case is reviewed for multiple times; it will contain last review date.
                  • Planned Test Phase: This field indicates Test Phase on which Test Case is executed to be planned.
                  • Actual Test Phase: This field in update at time of Test Case execution and indicates Test Phase during which Test Case was executed.
                  • Planned Test Execution Start Date: Date on which Test case execution is planned to start.
                  • Actual Test Start Date: Date on which Test Case execution was actually started.
                  • Planned Test Execution End Date: Date on which Test Case is execution planned to be completed.
                  • Actual Test Execution End Date: Date on which Test Case execution was actually completed.
                  • Test Environment: Test Environment on which Test Case was executed.
                  • Build Number (If applicable) : Build number on which Test Case was executed.
                  • Test Result: Result of Test Case, will be “No Run” before execution, “In progress” during execution, “Blocked” incase test case cannot be executed due to an existing defect, “Pass” incase all the Test Steps of the Test Case have passed and “Fail” incase one or more Test Steps of the Test Case has Failed.
                  • Step ID / Step No. : An identifier provided for each of the Test Case steps. Usually, numeric 1, 2, 3.
                  • Test Step: Indicates one or more actions to be performed.
                  • Input Data / Test Data: Provides details of the data to be used for testing the step.
                  • Expected Result: Described what to expect for the action performed and input data.
                  • Actual Result: Tester will key in observation based on what they observed.
                  • Test Step Result: Indicates results of the Test Step, will be “Not Run” if Test Step is not run, “Blocked” if the test step was not executed due to an existing defect, “Fail” if output did not match with Expected result, “Pass” if output matched Expected result.
                  • Defect#: Defect number associated with Failed Test Step.
                  • Comments: Any additional notes or observations tester wants to document during Test Execution.
                  • Test Case Change Log: Contains list of fields like “Change Summary”, “Reason for Change”, “Changed on Date”, “Changes reviewed by”, “Change review date” and “Comments”.

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                    LoadRunner interview questions



                    Below is an exhaustive list of LoadRunner interview questions, covering basic and advanced topics like “What is LoadRunner ?”, “What is load testing ?”, LoadRunner scripting, LoadRunner functions, LoadRunner result analysis, LoadRunner controller, LoadRunner correlation and other LoadRunner features.

                    Prepare for interviews by answering these questions to best of your knowledge and experience OR learn from the answers provided by others.

                    1. What is load testing ? Answer
                    2. What is LoadRunner ? Answer
                    3. What is Performance testing ? Answer
                    4. What is HP Performance Center ? Answer
                    5. What is Performance Engineering ? Answer
                    6. What are performance bottlenecks ? Answer
                    7. Explain the Load testing process ? Answer
                    8. What are the benefits of using LoadRunner tool ? Answer
                    9. What are the different types of Analysis Graphs provided by LoadRunner ? Answer
                    10. What is Remote Agent Dispatcher ? How is it different from LoadRunner Agent ? Answer
                    11. What are the different tools and options provided by LoadRunner to view a summary of the results after test
                    execution ? Answer
                    12. What is Correlation ? Answer
                    13. What is HP Business Availability Center ? Answer
                    14. What is the difference between Load Testing and Stress Testing ? Answer
                    15. What is the difference between Performance Testing and Load testing ? Answer
                    16. What is the version of the LoadRunner Software you have worked with ? Answer
                    17. What is SSL ? Answer
                    18. What is LDAP ? Answer
                    19. What is scenario ? Answer
                    20. How to Load a DLL locally Answer
                    21. How did you plan the Load ? Answer
                    22. What is Solution Explorer ? Answer
                    23. How to Load a DLL Globally ? Answer
                    24. What are the different Vuser Types ? Answer
                    25. What information does default.cfg contain ? Answer
                    26. what are Protocols ? Why there are so many protocols ? Answer
                    27. What is SSH ? What is the difference between SSL and SSH ? Answer
                    28. What is HTTP ? Answer
                    29. What is the difference between HTTP and HTTPS ? Answer
                    30. What is the difference between Business process flow and scenario ? Answer
                    31. What are the browsers supported by LoadRunner for Click & Script recording ? Answer
                    32. What are the steps to configure LoadRunner Run-Time Settings and Parameters ? Answer
                    33. What are the LoadRunner API method used for calling External Functions in DLLs ? Answer
                    34. What are the LoadRunner XML APIs that you have used ? Explain each of them briefly Answer
                    35. What would you do if you see an error stating GUI object not found after first iteration ? Answer
                    36. When you are recording script and you see problems with recording like images are not loaded, only part of the webpage is loaded or popup window does not open, what do you do ? Answer
                    37. What is ODBC ? Answer
                    38. What is VuGen ? Answer
                    39. What is transaction ? Answer
                    40. What is a controller ? Answer
                    41. What are Header Files ? Answer
                    42. What is a Load Generator ? Answer
                    43. What are parameter types ? Answer
                    44. What is a Terminal Emulator ? Answer
                    45. What is Performance analysis ? Answer
                    46. Why do you create Parameters ? Answer
                    47. What is Documentation Library ? Answer
                    48. Explain about XML Parameter Type Answer
                    49. Explain about Table Parameter Type Answer
                    50. What are Mailing Service protocols ? Answer
                    51. Explain about Internal Data Parameter Type Answer
                    52. What is version control ? What is its importance ? Answer
                    53. When to enable and disable socket level recording ? Answer
                    54. What is the difference between action and Transaction ? Answer
                    55. What is the protocol used for testing SAP applications ? Answer
                    56. Explain different parameter types supported by LoadRunner ? Answer
                    57. What is ALM (Application Lifecycle Management Connection) ? Answer
                    58. Explain about User-Defined Function Parameters with and example Answer
                    59. What are the steps for importing Parameter data from database ? Answer
                    60. What is the protocol used for testing IBM Mainframe applications ? Answer
                    61. what is DNS ? Answer
                    62. What is RMI ? Answer
                    63. What is CORBA ? Answer
                    64. What is DNS Caching ? Answer
                    65. What is Virtual Users ? Answer
                    66. How do you encode Passwords ? Answer
                    67. What is URL ? What are the contents of URL ? Answer
                    68. What are the protocols you have worked with ? Answer
                    69. What is the type of encryption supported by LoadRunner ? Answer
                    70. What is the LoadRunner function to decrypt encrypted text ? Answer
                    71. What is connection pooling ? What are the advantages of connection pooling ? Answer
                    72. What is a scenario ? Answer
                    73. What is Flex Recording Mode ? Answer
                    74. What is LoadRunner License Utility ? Answer
                    75. What is the difference between Node Locked and Unlocked license ? Answer
                    76. What is think time ? Answer
                    77. What is ideal think time ? Answer
                    78. How to Work with Version Controlled Scripts in ALM
                    Projects ? Answer
                    79. How have you implemented version controlling for LoadRunner scripts ? Answer
                    80. What is Throughput ? Answer
                    81. Explain LoadRunner Support for Asynchronous Communication. Answer
                    82. What are monitors ? Answer
                    83. How to Query an XML Tree ? Answer
                    84. What is extended log ? Answer
                    85. What is report viewer ? Answer
                    86. What is Rendezvous point ? What is the need for Rendezvous points ? Answer
                    87. What is scenario wizard ? Answer
                    88. What is LoadRunner Agent. Answer
                    89. How to Serialize Scripts with the LoadRunner Serializer ? Answer
                    90. What is Manual Correlation ? Answer
                    91. What is lrd_stmt ? Answer
                    92. What is lrd_fetch ? Answer
                    93. What is IP Spoofing ? Answer
                    94. What is Animated Run ? Answer
                    95. What is lr_debug_message ? Answer
                    96. What is lr_error_message ? Answer
                    97. What is lr_output_message ? Answer
                    98. What is the use of Breakpoints ? Answer
                    99. What is LoadRunner API function ? Answer
                    100. What is smart object recognition ? Answer
                    101. How to use network drive mappings ? Answer
                    102. What does vuser_end action contain ? Answer
                    103. What does vuser_init action contain ? Answer
                    104. What is Elapsed Time in LoadRunner ? Answer
                    105. How do you debug a LoadRunner script ? Answer
                    106. What are the components of LoadRunner ? Answer
                    107. What is Ramp up ? How do you set this ? Answer
                    108. How to select item from virtual list box ? Answer
                    109. How did you find database related issues ? Answer
                    110. Does LoadRunner support IPV6 applications ? Answer
                    111. What is the significance of “Vuser-init ” ? Answer
                    112. How did you find web server related issues ? Answer
                    113. How many types of graphs are in LoadRunner ? Answer
                    114. When do you do load and performance Testing ? Answer
                    115. What are the protocols supported by LoadRunner ? Which of them have used used during load or performance testing ? Answer
                    116. Where do you set Iteration for Vuser ? Answer
                    117. How to write user defined functions in LR ? Answer
                    118. How many VUsers are required for load testing ? Answer
                    119. Where do you set automatic correlation options ? Answer
                    120. Explain the recording modes for web Vuser script. Answer
                    121. How do you identify the performance bottlenecks ? Please explain step by step. Answer
                    122. What are the languages used for VuGen Recording and Scripting ? Answer
                    123. Is it possible to perform functional testing using LoadRunner ? Answer
                    124. What are the languages supported by VUGen editor ? Answer
                    125. How do you find out when and where correlation is required ? Answer
                    126. What are the steps for creating a Vuser Script ? Answer
                    127. How to set the number of Vusers in LoadRunner ? Answer
                    128. How to end a nested transaction ? Answer
                    129. How to enable thumbnail generation in LoadRunner ? Answer
                    130. What is the advantage of running Vuser as thread ? Answer
                    131. What are the changes you can make in run-time settings ? Answer
                    132. What is the LoadRunner start-transaction and its syntax ? Answer
                    133. What is the difference between load and performance testing ? Answer
                    134. What is the relation between Response Time and Throughput ? Answer
                    135. How to divide script into multiple Actions ? What is the advantage of dividing script into multiple actions ? Answer
                    136. What are the difference between standard log and extended log ? Answer
                    137. What are the types of check points is available in LoadRunner ? Answer
                    138. What are the various types of Goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario ? Answer
                    139. What component of LoadRunner is used to record a Script ? Can the script be created without recording ? If yes, how and have you created any script without recording ? Answer
                    140. Where should you add a web_reg_save_param function to a script ? Answer
                    141. Does caching have a negative effect on your load testing results ? Answer
                    142. What is the difference between Overlay graph and Correlate graph ? Answer
                    143. What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web Vuser script ? Answer
                    144. What is the difference between lr_error_message and lr_debug _message ? Answer
                    145. Which web protocol recording level generates the web_submit_form function ? Answer
                    146. How Asynchronous Functions Differ from Synchronous Functions in LoadRunner ? Answer
                    147. when a load test fails and web server, database and Network seem to be working fine, where could be the problem ? Answer
                    148. If you want to stop execution of a script on error, how do you do that ? Answer
                    149. What is the importance of ordinance in web_reg_save_param during correlation ? Answer
                    150. What is the difference between transaction and transaction instance ? Answer
                    151. What component of LoadRunner would you use to play Back the script in multi user mode ? Answer
                    152. When to use standard and when to use extended logs ? Answer
                    153. What are the different types of bottlenecks you have uncovered in the load tests you performed ? Answer
                    154. Is running Vuser as process more advantageous than running Vuser as thread ? Explain. Answer
                    155. What is the difference between Process and Thread ? Answer
                    156. Have you attended any formal trainings for LoadRunner ? Answer
                    157. What do you know about LoadRunner certification ? Are you preparing for LoadRunner certification ? Answer
                    158. Explain LoadRunner architecture. Answer

                     

                    Thanks Lakshmi, for covering most of the LoadRunner interview questions. As always, your contribution has helped our software testing blog visitors.


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                      QTP interview questions



                      Below is an exhaustive (over 200 questions) and most frequently asked QTP (QuickTest Professional) interview questions. Try answering questions and will help you to prepare for interview. To answer to questions click on “Answer” link and post your answers.

                      1. What is QTP ? Answer
                      2. What is Session ? Answer
                      3. What are Add-ins ? Answer
                      4. What are cookies ? Answer
                      5. What is GetRoProperty ? Answer
                      6. What is SetToProperty ? Answer
                      7. What is Step Generator ? Answer
                      8. What is Text checkpoint ? Answer
                      9. What are Virtual Objects ? Answer
                      10. What is an Optional Step ? Answer
                      11. What is Analog recording ? Answer
                      12. What is Object Spy in QTP ? Answer
                      13. What is Test Fusion Report ? Answer
                      14. what is keyword driventest ? Answer
                      15. How to debugging your test ? Answer
                      16. Explain QTP Testing process ? Answer
                      17. How to check Bitmaps in QTP ? Answer
                      18. How to test a date with QTP ? Answer
                      19. What are limitations of QTP ? Answer
                      20. What is data driven testing ? Answer
                      21. What is database check point ? Answer
                      22. What is Reporter.ReportEvent ? Answer
                      23. What is smart Identification ? Answer
                      24. What is Parameterizing Tests ? Answer
                      25. How to schedule tests in QTP ? Answer
                      26. How to Test XML pages in QTP ? Answer
                      27. What is Automation framework ? Answer
                      28. What are the datatypes in QTP ? Answer
                      29. How does QTP identify objects ? Answer
                      30. What is QTP batch testing tool ? Answer
                      31. What is action conversion Tool ? Answer
                      32. What is keyword driven testing ? Answer
                      33. What is descriptive programming ? Answer
                      34. Where do checkpoints get stored ? Answer
                      35. What is meant by Source Control ? Answer
                      36. What is the cost of QTP license ? Answer
                      37. How to export object repository ? Answer
                      38. How to handle exceptions in QTP ? Answer
                      39. What is Accessibility Checkpoint ? Answer
                      40. What is test object model in QTP ? Answer
                      41. What is logical name of the object Answer
                      42. How to Turn Off QTP test results ? Answer
                      43. How to analyzing QTP test results ? Answer
                      44. How QTP recognizes Objects in AUT ? Answer
                      45. How to declare a variables in QTP ? Answer
                      46. What is the latest version of QTP ? Answer
                      47. What is Object Spy ? How to Use it ? Answer
                      48. What you do if QTP license expires ? Answer
                      49. Which environments supported by QTP ? Answer
                      50. How to connect to database from QTP ? Answer
                      51. How to comment block of code in QTP ? Answer
                      52. How to change name of a checkpoint ? Answer
                      53. When to use analog recording in qtp ? Answer
                      54. How will you handle Java tree in QTP ? Answer
                      55. How can you handle exceptions in QTP ? Answer
                      56. How to handle dynamic objects in QTP ? Answer
                      57. What are environment variables in QTP ? Answer
                      58. How to update database table from QTP ? Answer
                      59. How do you setup QTP test environment ? Answer
                      60. How do we record a pop up window in QTP Answer
                      61. How to develop Test Frame work for QTP ? Answer
                      62. What is meant by external files in QTP ? Answer
                      63. What is the use of Regular Expressions ? Answer
                      64. How to reporting defects in QC from QTP ? Answer
                      65. How to test dynamic web pages using QTP ? Answer
                      66. How to import data for data driven test ? Answer
                      67. How to check for broken links using QTP ? Answer
                      68. How can we mask data in QTP script file ? Answer
                      69. What are check points ? Why we need them ? Answer
                      70. How to test a stored procedure using QTP ? Answer
                      71. How to record non-standard object in QTP ? Answer
                      72. What is the limitation of XML Checkpoint ? Answer
                      73. When should we use virtual object wizard ? Answer
                      74. How to test flash applications using QTP ? Answer
                      75. How to add a page checkpoint to your test ? Answer
                      76. How to write QTP test results to an Excel ? Answer
                      77. What are the environments supported by QTP ? Answer
                      78. What is difference between stub and driver ? Answer
                      79. How many types of Actions are there in QTP ? Answer
                      80. How to connect to Oracle database from QTP ? Answer
                      81. How to make QTP recognise activeX controls ? Answer
                      82. How to check size of the object repository ? Answer
                      83. How to record Flex (1.0) objects using QTP ? Answer
                      84. What is keyword view and Expert view in QTP ? Answer
                      85. What is recovery manager ? Explain in detail. Answer
                      86. What factors that affect bitmap checkpoints ? Answer
                      87. How many types of recording are there in QTP ? Answer
                      88. How do you test oracle application using qtp ? Answer
                      89. How do you test oracle application using qtp ? Answer
                      90. What is the scope of a variable in an action ? Answer
                      91. How to add run-time parameter to a datasheet ? Answer
                      92. Explain keyword “CreateObject” with an example Answer
                      93. How to call winrunner script from QTP script ? Answer
                      94. What will you do to record Java objects in QTP? Answer
                      95. How to execute qtp script from command prompt ? Answer
                      96. What is the file extension test script in QTP ? Answer
                      97. What are the different loops supported in QTP ? Answer
                      98. How to call from one action to another action ? Answer
                      99. How to return value from userdefined function ? Answer
                      100. What is the file extension of function library ? Answer
                      101. What are different types of Checkpoints in QTP ? Answer
                      102. How to create dynamic object repository in QTP ? Answer
                      103. How to write script without using a GUI in QTP ? Answer
                      104. How to perform cross browser testing using QTP ? Answer
                      105. Where is the bitmap chekpoint information saved ? Answer
                      106. How to perform cross platform testing using QTP ? Answer
                      107. How would you connect to database using vbscript ? Answer
                      108. How to perform Test Automation feasibility study ? Answer
                      109. What is the difference between Winrunner and QTP ? Answer
                      110. What is the difference between VB and VBScripting ? Answer
                      111. Does QuickTest Professional (QTP) support Unicode ? Answer
                      112. How to validate dates like today’s date(02/15/06) ? Answer
                      113. What are the scripting languages supported by QTP ? Answer
                      114. How to supress warnings from the Test results page ? Answer
                      115. Explain in brief about QTP Automation Object Model ? Answer
                      116. What is the use of function and sub function in QTP ? Answer
                      117. What is the function for loading a repository in QTP ? Answer
                      118. What are the different types object repository in QTP ? Answer
                      119. What are the different ways you can enhance QTP script ? Answer
                      120. Explain about Smart Identification with a simple example Answer
                      121. How to execute a Parameterized SQL query in QTP script ? Answer
                      122. How to call a funtion present in dll from a QTP Script ? Answer
                      123. How is run time data (Parameterization) handled in QTP ? Answer
                      124. What are the different types of recording modes in QTP ? Answer
                      125. What is a Run-Time Data Table ? How to view this table ? Answer
                      126. Have you have used a COM interface in your QTP project ? Answer
                      127. What is the maximum number of actions supported in QTP ? Answer
                      128. What are the different dubugging modes available in QTP ? Answer
                      129. What are the different ways to parameterize data in QTP ? Answer
                      130. What is the significance of keywords Public and Private ? Answer
                      131. Can you launch two instances of QTP on the same machine ? Answer
                      132. What is the difference between qtp script and vb script ? Answer
                      133. Give one example where you have used Regular Expression ? Answer
                      134. How to pass parameters from one action to another action ? Answer
                      135. what is the regular expression for date format of ddmmyy ? Answer
                      136. How to close all the opened browsers by using QTP script ? Answer
                      137. What is the Hotkey that can be used for Hitting spacebar ? Answer
                      138. How can i add a action (external action) programatically ? Answer
                      139. How to Save your test using QuickTest Professional (QTP) ? Answer
                      140. How to break a test if one of the bitmap-checkpoint fails ? Answer
                      141. What is action split and the purpose of using this in QTP ? Answer
                      142. What are the Features and Benefits of Quick Test Pro(QTP) ? Answer
                      143. How to open a new test using QuickTest Professional (QTP) ? Answer
                      144. How to get Class name of a Test Object at run time in QTP ? Answer
                      145. What are the different types of Test Automation Frameworks ? Answer
                      146. Will QTP recognize objects in applications like Photo-Shop ? Answer
                      147. What are the different VBScript function that you have used ? Answer
                      148. How to pass parameters from one test to another test in QTP ? Answer
                      149. What is the difference between check point and output value ? Answer
                      150. What is the difference between functions and actions in QTP ? Answer
                      151. How would you export a Script from one PC to another in QTP ? Answer
                      152. What is the extension of script and object repository files ? Answer
                      153. Which of the check points can be inserted without recording ? Answer
                      154. How to call external aand built-in-function in a QTP script ? Answer
                      155. How to find out if a application window is minimized or not ? Answer
                      156. Which scripting language used by QuickTest Professional (QTP) ? Answer
                      157. What is the difference between Call to Action and Copy Action ? Answer
                      158. What is difference between window(” “) and dialog(” “) in QTP ? Answer
                      159. Which is better Keyword driven testing or Data driven testing ? Answer
                      160. What are the types of qtp licenses ? Explain each of them briefly Answer
                      161. What is the default delay time for web based application in QTP ? Answer
                      162. How to get class name of test object by repository logical name ? Answer
                      163. How to load the *.vbs or test generating script in a new machine ? Answer
                      164. How to choose scripting language between JavaScript and VBScript ? Answer
                      165. Different ways of adding check points to an application using QTP ? Answer
                      166. Can we record an application running on a remote machine using QTP ? Answer
                      167. What are different execution modes available in QTP & explain them ? Answer
                      168. What is the Diff between Image check-point and Bit map Check point ? Answer
                      169. How to count number of columns of a database table from QTP script ? Answer
                      170. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Virtual object wizard ? Answer
                      171. What is the difference detween text and Textarea checkpoints in QTP ? Answer
                      172. If you were given thousand tests to executed in 3 days what do u do ? Answer
                      173. How to handle the exceptions using recovery scenario manager in QTP ? Answer
                      174. What does it mean when a check point is in red color ? what do u do ? Answer
                      175. What is difference between Analog recording and low level recording ? Answer
                      176. Is there any function to double click a particular row in a webtable ? Answer
                      177. What is the use of Text output value in QuickTest Professional (QTP) ? Answer
                      178. Can we call a QTP script from a main script without making it reusable ? Answer
                      179. How to insert a check point to a image to check enable property in QTP ? Answer
                      180. What are the coding standards that you have used for automation using QTP ? Answer
                      181. How can i import and/or merge an existing repository into my current test ? Answer
                      182. How to get a text from a list box,a cell from a table,and edit a text box ? Answer
                      183. What is the difference between test fusion reports and test results in QTP ? Answer
                      184. What is the difference between Shared Repository and Per Action Repository ? Answer
                      185. When there are repeatable steps in multiple scripts, what do you do in QTP ? Answer
                      186. What to do if the tree view of the application is not recognised by the QTP ? Answer
                      187. How to open notepad without recording nor by running SystemUtil.Run command ? Answer
                      188. What are the new features available in QTP 11 compared with earlier versions ? Answer
                      189. What is the difference between debug modes (Stepinto, Stepout, and Stepover) ? Answer
                      190. During test run option “Run from Step” is not launching browswer window, why ? Answer
                      191. What are compiled modules ? What is your experience in writing compiled module ? Answer
                      192. What is synchronization ? What is its relevance with respect to automated tests ? Answer
                      193. During test execution if error occurs, how to find the object that caused error ? Answer
                      194. What is the use of command tab in Debug viewer ? Can we execute user defined queries Answer
                      195. How to change the Object Repository Mode at run time ? i.e., from Shared to PerAction. Answer
                      196. What are the advantages and disadvantages of global data sheet and local action sheet ? Answer
                      197. How can an object from a per action repository be called to another per action repository ? Answer
                      198. What is the size limit for shared object repository ? What would you do if limit is exceeded ? Answer
                      199. What are the 10 QTP functions that you have frequently ? Explain each of the functions briefly. Answer
                      200. What are the advantages and disdavantages of shared object repository and per action repository ? Answer
                      201. What are the challenges you faced with test automation using QTP ? How did you overcome challenges ? Answer
                      202. How to run multiple instances of an application and how to differentiate 2 instances via QTP script ? Answer
                      203. How to select particular value from a combo box in current page that was entered in the previous page ? Answer
                      204. Winrunner and QTP are 2 test automation tools and now from the same company ? Why 2 tools from same company ? Answer
                      205. Is it possible to change from Shared Object Repository to Per Action Repository and vice verse ? If yes how ? Answer
                      206. What would be your approach to test a page that displays random questions and answers change the order of display ? Answer
                      207. When tests are run as batch, QTP shows results for last action only, so how to get results for each action of every script ? Answer
                      208. Do you have any experience in test automation for SAP ? If yes, what are the challenges you faced and how you overcame them ? Answer
                      209. What are the differences in exception handling between QTP and winrunner ? Which tool provides better exception handling facility ? Answer
                      210. Do you have any experience in test automation for Mainframe ? If yes, what are the challenges you faced and how you overcame them ? Answer
                      211. Incase Global Data sheet contains 0 (zero) records and Local Datasheet contains 4 rows of data. How many times will the test iterate ? Answer
                      212. On trying to record report generation, report is opened in a new window but QTP does not recognize new window at run time, how to make it work ? Answer
                      213. How to recognize Flex objects using QTP ? When script is recorded, it takes all objects as winobjects whether they are checkboxes or hyperlinks ? Answer
                      214. External data is imported to datatable of QTP at run time. In this case, how to set number of iterations for first 10% of the rows in the datatable only, how do we set that in run time ? Answer
                      215. How to instruct QTP to display errors and ther description in the test results instead of halting execution by throwing error in the mid of execution due to an error(for example Object not found) ? Answer
                      216. How to identify an object from a list of objects that are dynamically generated ? For e.g. on entering 5 in a text box and clicking “Go” button, 5 Dropdown boxes are displayed. How to select value from a particular dropbox ? Answer

                      If you have additional questions to be included in above list then please email questions to contactus[at]softwaretestingsoftware.com


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